SOC201 Exam2

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kana-nmnl
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SOC201 Exam2
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2012-04-26 19:43:21
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  1. Defining Culture
    the entire way of life of a group of people, including both maaterial and symbolic elements, that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next.
  2. Ethnocentrism
    the principle of using one's own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal
  3. Cultural relativism
    the principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to one's own culture
  4. Material Culture
    the objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork: any physical object which we give social meaning
  5. Symbolic Culture - values, norms, and sanctions
    the ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, value, and assumption) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions and communication)
  6. Subcultures and counter culture
    • Subculture: a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms. and lifestyle
    • Counterculture: a group within society that openly rejects and/or actively oppose society's values and norms
  7. The process of socialization
    Socialization is the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group, by which we become functioning members of society.
  8. Agents of socialization - family, peers, schools
    social groups, instiutions, and individuals (especially the family, schools, peers, and the mass media) that provide structured situations in which socialization takes place
  9. Adult socialization
    Adult socialization means we learn something new adopt to it everyday, even though we become "adults"

    • Resocialization: the process of replacing preciously learned norms and values with new ones as a part of a transitino in life
    • Total institution: an institution in which individuals are cut off from the rest of society so that their lives can be controlled and regulated for the purpose of systematically stripping away previous roles and identities in order to create new ones
  10. Looking glass self (Charles Horton Cooley)
    the notin that the self develops through our perception of others' evaluations and appraisals of us
  11. Mind, self, and society (George Herbert Mead)
  12. Dramaurgy (Eving Goffman)
    an approach in which social life is analyzed in terms of its similarities to theatrical performance
  13. Statuses and roles
    • status: a position in a social hierarchy that carries a particular set of expectations
    • role: the set of behaviors expected of someone because of his or her status
  14. Role conflict and role strain
    • Role conflict: experienced when we occupy 2 or more roles with contradictiory expectations
    • Role strain: the tension experienced when there are contradictory expectations within one role
  15. Defining groups
    a collectin of people who share same attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other
  16. Primary Groups
    the people who are most important to our sense of self; members' relationships are typically characterized by face-to-face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging
  17. Secondary Groups
    larger and less intimate than primary groups; members' relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary
  18. Anomie
    "normlessness," term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bounds and an increased pace of change
  19. Groupthink
    in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement
  20. Bureaucracy
    a type of secondary group designed to perfrom tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication
  21. McDonaldization (George Ritzer)
    George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in effeciency and dehumanization
  22. Defining deviance
    Deviance: a behavior, trait, belief, or other characteristic that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction
  23. Body modification
  24. Functions of deviance (Emile Durkheim)
    Deviance can help a society clarify its moral boundaries and promote social cohesion.
  25. Structural strain theory (Robert Merton)
    in an unequal society the tension or strain between socially approved goals and an individual's ability to meet those goals through socially approved means will lead to deviance as individuals reject either the goals or the means or both.
  26. differential association theory (Edwin Sutherland)
    we learn to be deviant through our associations with deviant peers
  27. Labeling theory (Howard Becker)
    Deviance is a consequence of external judgments, or labels, which modify the individual's self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person
  28. Positive deviance
    actions considered deviant within a given context but which are later reinterpreted as appropriate or even heroic
  29. Stigma
    Erving Goffman's term for any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group's identity and which may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction

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