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the entire way of life of a group of people, including both maaterial and symbolic elements, that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next.
the principle of using one's own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal
the principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to one's own culture
the objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork: any physical object which we give social meaning
Symbolic Culture - values, norms, and sanctions
the ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, value, and assumption) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions and communication)
Subcultures and counter culture
- Subculture: a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms. and lifestyle
- Counterculture: a group within society that openly rejects and/or actively oppose society's values and norms
The process of socialization
Socialization is the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group, by which we become functioning members of society.
Agents of socialization - family, peers, schools
social groups, instiutions, and individuals (especially the family, schools, peers, and the mass media) that provide structured situations in which socialization takes place
Adult socialization means we learn something new adopt to it everyday, even though we become "adults"
- Resocialization: the process of replacing preciously learned norms and values with new ones as a part of a transitino in life
- Total institution: an institution in which individuals are cut off from the rest of society so that their lives can be controlled and regulated for the purpose of systematically stripping away previous roles and identities in order to create new ones
Looking glass self (Charles Horton Cooley)
the notin that the self develops through our perception of others' evaluations and appraisals of us
Mind, self, and society (George Herbert Mead)
Dramaurgy (Eving Goffman)
an approach in which social life is analyzed in terms of its similarities to theatrical performance
Statuses and roles
- status: a position in a social hierarchy that carries a particular set of expectations
- role: the set of behaviors expected of someone because of his or her status
Role conflict and role strain
- Role conflict: experienced when we occupy 2 or more roles with contradictiory expectations
- Role strain: the tension experienced when there are contradictory expectations within one role
a collectin of people who share same attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other
the people who are most important to our sense of self; members' relationships are typically characterized by face-to-face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging
larger and less intimate than primary groups; members' relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary
"normlessness," term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bounds and an increased pace of change
in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement
a type of secondary group designed to perfrom tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication
McDonaldization (George Ritzer)
George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in effeciency and dehumanization
Deviance: a behavior, trait, belief, or other characteristic that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction
Functions of deviance (Emile Durkheim)
Deviance can help a society clarify its moral boundaries and promote social cohesion.
Structural strain theory (Robert Merton)
in an unequal society the tension or strain between socially approved goals and an individual's ability to meet those goals through socially approved means will lead to deviance as individuals reject either the goals or the means or both.
differential association theory (Edwin Sutherland)
we learn to be deviant through our associations with deviant peers
Labeling theory (Howard Becker)
Deviance is a consequence of external judgments, or labels, which modify the individual's self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person
actions considered deviant within a given context but which are later reinterpreted as appropriate or even heroic
Erving Goffman's term for any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group's identity and which may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction
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