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  1. Medial indentation on the concave side of the kidney:
    Hilum (Hilus)
  2. The basic and functional unit of the kidney?
  3. What are the three main regions of the kidney?
    Cortex, Medula, and Pelvis
  4. Descending and ascending limb within the medulla?
    Loop of Henle
  5. A cavity continuous with the ureter and medial to the medulla:
    Renal pelvis
  6. What is the approximate number of nephrons per kidney?
  7. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule:
    Renal corpuscle
  8. Tubule extending from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle:
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • lies within the renal cortex
  9. Tubule joins the collecting duct:
    Distal convoluted tubule
  10. Give the location for the loop of Henle:
    Extends into the renal medulla
  11. Bowman's capsule is an extension of which tubule?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  12. Outer layer of the kidney:
    Renal cortex
  13. Region of the kidney containing the renal pyramids:
    Renal medulla
  14. The apex of the renal pyramids:
    Renal papilla
  15. Lines extending from the apex to the base of a renal pyramid:
    Collecting ducts
  16. Extensions of the renal cortex into the medulla between the renal pyramids:
    Renal comlumn
  17. Tubule joining the descending loop of Henle:
    Tubule joining the ascending loop of Henle:
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Distal convoluted tubule
  18. Enclose the papillae of the renal pyramids:
    Minor calyx
  19. Extend from the base of the pyramids to the papillae and calyx:
    Collecting ducts
  20. Name three functions of nephrons:
    • 1) Regulate volume and composition of blood plasma by removal of water and dissolved substances
    • 2) Help regulate blood pH
    • 3) Remove toxic waste from blood
  21. Vessel entering Bowman's capsule:
    Vessel leaving Bowman's capsule:
    • Afferent arteriole
    • Efferent arteriole
  22. What is the final result of the 3 functions of a nephron:
    1) Regulate volume and composition of blood plasma by removal of water and dissolved substances
    2) Help regulate blood pH
    3) Remove toxic waste from blood
    Formation of urine
  23. Define filtration:
    A process forcing some of the water and dissolved substances in blood and plasma from the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule.
  24. Which of the two arterioles has the larger diameter?
    What effect does this have on the pressure?
    • Afferent
    • Higher pressure (increase)
  25. What is unique about the permeability of the glomerulus?
  26. What are the two materials not allowed to pass into Bowman's capsule from the glomerulus?
    Plasma proteins and blood cells
  27. The rate of filtration is directly proportional to the blood pressure of the __________.
  28. Fluid entering the Bowman's capsule:
  29. What is the rate of filtration per hour?
    What is the rate of filtration per 24 hours?
    • 7.5 L/hr
    • 180 L (45gal)/ hr
  30. What effect does low systemic blood pressure have on the rate of filtration?
    Insufficient filtration
  31. At what level of systemic blood pressure will filtration stop?
    50 mmHg
  32. Is urine formed if there is no filtration?
  33. When is the juxtaglomerular apperatus functional?
    Low systemic blood pressure
  34. Explain how angiotensin elevates the systemic blood pressure:
  35. In terms of arterioles, explain how the glomerular blood pressure can be elevated:
    Angiotensin II constricts effferent arterioles raising glomerular blood pressure. It also increases filtration.
  36. The movement of molecules out of the tubules nad into the peritubular blood:
  37. The movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubules:
  38. What fractional part of the filtrate passing into Bowman's capsule will be reabsorbed before reaching the end of the proximal tubule?
    More than 2/3
  39. Why is reabsorption a selective process?
    Because needed materials are conserved. Excess and waste are exerted in urine
  40. Where is the site of most tubular reabsorption?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  41. How many liters of urine are produced per day?
    What condition exists when too much urine is secreted?
    What is the condition of blood in the urine?
    What is the condition of no urine secretion?
    Painful urine excretion:
    Ascant amount of urine excreted:
    • 1-2 L/day
    • Polyuria
    • Hematuria
    • Anuria
    • Dysuria
    • Oligouria
  42. What per cent of the water entering Bowman's capsule will be reabsorbed?
  43. Why is glucose and amino acids not found in the urine normally?
    Because all glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed
  44. Compare active and passive transport: discuss types of energy involved; concentration gradient; and carrier molecules:
    • Active transport- moves from low concentration to high concentration; requires ATP for energy and carrier molecules
    • Passive transport- moves from high concentration to low concentration; does not require ATP or carrier molecules
  45. How does the reabsorption of sodium and potassium ions differ in the proximal tubules and descending loop of Henle?
  46. By what process are glucose, amino acids, and organic acids reabsorbed?
    Active transport
  47. Passive transport depends on what three factors?
    Diffusion, Osmosis, Electomechanical movement
  48. How does osmosis differ from diffusion?
    Osmosis only diffuses water across a selectively permeable membrane
  49. ________per cent of the water is reabsobed in the proximal tubule, and ________per cent is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle and the distal tubule.
    80, 20
  50. Which process allows the body to rid itself of excess substances and hel control blood pH?
  51. What effect does increased concentration of ions in the peritubular capillary have on the osmotic pressure of blood?
    Increases osmotic pressure
  52. By what two processes can secretion occur?
    Passive and avtive transport
  53. Which ion is actively secreted into the proximal tubule and also actively secreted into the distal tubule?
    Hydrogen ions
  54. How are potassium ions secreted?
    Passibely secreted into distal tubule
  55. Where does the renin-angiotensin mechanism originate?
    Juxtaglomerular apparatus
  56. What two structures meet at the junction in the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    Afferent arterioles and distal tubule
  57. What stimulus is necessary for the contraction of smooth muscle?
  58. Under what condition of systemic blood pressure will the afferent arterioles be dilated? ________ constricted? ________
    • Decreased systemic blood pressure
    • Increased systemic blood pressure
  59. What effect does increased solute have on the secretion of urine?
    Increased solute leads to increase in urine
  60. Hormone secreted by muscle fibers in the atrial wall of the heart: ________; effect on urine volume: ________
    • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
    • Increase
  61. Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland: ________ effect on water loss: ________ effect on sodium ions: ________
    • Antidiuretic hormone
    • Decrease
    • Increase sodium absorption
  62. Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex: ________ its effects on urine volume: ________
    • Aldosterone
    • Decrease
  63. What is glycosuria?
    What health condition exists with glycosuria?
    • Glucose in the urine.
    • Diabetes
  64. Hollow muscular organ providing temporary storage for urine:
    Urinary bladder
  65. What prevents urine in the kidney bladder from backing up into the ureter?
    A flap like fold of mucous membrane covers opening of ureters
  66. Give the beginning and end of the ureter:
    Begins with renal pelvis and ends with lower lateral margin of urinary bladder
  67. Which layer in the wall of the ureter is smooth muscle?
  68. Peristaltic waves are associated with which layer of the ureteral wall?
  69. What is the function of the peristaltic waves?
    Transport urine from ureter to bladder
  70. The inner layer of the wall of the ureter is continuous with what?
    Renal pelvis, urinary bladder, urethra
  71. What bony structure lies anterior to the urinary bladder?
    Pubic symphisis
  72. Using the equation on effective filtration pressure (EFP) what combination of forces move fluids out of the glomerulus?
    glomerular hydrostatic pressure + capsular hydrostatic pressure
  73. What two forces move fluids into the glomerulus?
    Glomerular osmotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure
Card Set:
2012-04-11 04:31:17

Urinary System
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