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2012-05-08 23:52:56
Digestive System

Digestive System
Show Answers:

  1. What does the GI tract include? (7)

    "Most People Eat So Shitty (they have) Large Asses"
    • 1) Mouth
    • 2) Pharynx
    • 3) Esophagus
    • 4) Stomach
    • 5) Small intestine
    • 6) Large Intestine
    • 7) Anus
  2. What are the Acessory digestive organs? (6)

    • 1) Teeth
    • 2) Tongue
    • 3) Gallbladder
    • 4) Salivary Glands
    • 5) Liver
    • 6) Pancreas
  3. Where does the alimentary canal open?
    Open to the external environment at BOTH ends.
  4. What is the purpose fo the Digestive System? (2)
    1) Acquire nutrients

    2) and Water
  5. Where is alcohol absorbed?

    Where are nutrients and fats absorbed?
    -->After absorption, which system do they pass into?

    What is absorbed by the large intestine? (3)
    Alcohol: stomach

    • Nutrients/fats: small intesting
    • -->After absorption, pass into they lymphatic system.
    • --->Fat then goes to CIRCULATORY system.

    • Large intestine:
    • 1) water
    • 2) electrolytes
    • 3) vitamins
  6. After nutrients are absorbed, where are they passed into of the digestive system?
    Nutrients pass through the VEINS of the digestive system and then go into the LIVER.
  7. What is the sigmoid colon a storage site for?
    A storages site for FECES.
  8. Activities of Digestion.

    6 essential food-processing activities of the Digestive System

    What is #1?
    Ingestion is taking food into mouth.
  9. Activities of Digestion.

    6 essential food-processing activities of the Digestive System.

    What is #2?
    Propulsion = swallowing (partly voluntary) and peristalsis (involuntary movement of food).
  10. Activities of Digestion.

    What is #3?
    • Mechanical digestion:
    • -Chewing, churning food in stomach, and segmentation.
    • -Occurs in MOUT, STOMACH, and SMALL INTESTINE.
  11. Activities of Digestion.

    What is #4?
    • Chemical digestion (breaks down the food material to molecules)
  12. Activites of Digestion.

    What is #5?
    • Absorption:
    • -Transporting nutrients/electrolytes/water into veins; and fats into the lymphatics.
  13. Activities of Digestion.

    What is #6?
    • Defacation:
    • -elimintion of indigestible substances.

    Note: food passes through the GI tract and the body takes what it needs.
  14. Histological organization of the Digestive System.

    The organization for the entire length of the GI tract is: (4)?
    • 1) Mucosa (true epithelium + lamina propria + muscularsis mucosae)
    • Note: Epithelium is either Stratified Squamous or Simple Columnar.

    2) Submucosa: different card*

    3) Muscularis externa (muscularis) - smooth muscle

    4) Serosa (mesothelium) or adventitia
  15. Histological organization of the Digestive System.

    What is does the Submucosa contain? (4)
    • 1) Arteries
    • 2) Veins
    • 3) Nerves
    • 4) Mucus glands (sometimes).
  16. Enteric ("internal organ" or intestine) Nervous Plexes (independent control of digestion).

    Contain what 2 layers? Define them also.
    1) Submucosal: signals submucosal glands to secrete AND. muscularis mucosae to contract.

    • 2) Myenteric (myo = muscle + enteric "internal organ")
    • -located between the Circular and Longitudinal layers of Muscularis Externa.
  17. Of Submucosal or Myenteric Enteric Nervous Plexes, which controls peristalsis & segmentation?
    Peristalsis & Segmentation is controlled by "myenteric".
  18. What are the 4 mucosal types in the GI tract?

    What are their function?
    1) Protective: Oral cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus & anal canal.

    2) Secretory: secretes mucus.

    3) Absorptive: absorbing nutrients (small intestine)

    • 4) Absorptive/Protective:
    • -Absorbs water/electrolytes switching to stratified squamous
    • -Absorptive-cells in large intestine, stratified squamous in anal canal.
  19. What are the 4 mucosal types in the GI tract composed of?
    1) Protective: Stratified Squamous Epithelium

    2) Secretory: Simple Columnar Epithelium

    3) Absorptive: Simple Columnar Cells

    4) Absorptive/Protective: Simple Columnar Cells.
  20. Divisions of Alimentary Canal.

    Oral Cavity (mouth):

    What is the alveolar ridge?

    What is a vestibule?

    What is a frenulum? (also, distinguish between the Labial and Lingual frenulum)
    Alveolar Ridge: the line between the tooth and gum.

    Vestibule: space between the lip and the alveolar ridge.

    • Frenulum: a fold.
    • -labial: lip to the gum
    • -lingul: tongue to floor of oral cavitiy.
  21. Of the oral cavity, where do the salivary glands open?
    Open under the TONGUE or through the CHEEK.
  22. What is the roof of the oral cavity formed by? (2)

    Which does the "uvula" hang from?
    1) hard palate (maxillary & palatine bones)

    2) soft palate

    *Uvula hangs from the soft palate
  23. The soft palate contain what 2 lateral arches?

    Where is the palatine tonsil?
    1) Palatoglossal arch: from the palate to the tongue

    2) Palatopharyngeal arch: from palate to pharynx.

    *Palatine tonsil is between the two arches.
  24. Of the oral cavitiy, what are the lips formed from?

    What are the cheeks formed from?
    Lips: formed from Orbicularis Oris

    Cheeks: formed from Buccinator muscle.
  25. I. Tongue.

    What is the tongue covered by? (hint: not taste buds!)
    The tongue is covered with PAPILLAE "nipples".
  26. II. Tongue

    What are the 3 tyeps of "papillae"?
    1) Filiform (L. "filament" + "shape")

    2) Fungiform (L. fungi = "fungus or mushroom" + "shape")

    3) Circumvallate (L. circa = "around" + vallum = "a rampart or wall")
  27. III. Tongue

    Of Filiform, Fungiform, or Circumvallate:
    -Which resembes pointed cones?
    -Most numerous?
    -No tastebuds?

    -Resemble mushrooms?
    -Has tastebuds?

    -Resembles a circular wall?
    -Also has taste buds?
    Filiform: cones, most numerous, NO tastebuds

    Fungiform: mushrooms, TASTE BUDS.

    Circumvallate: circular wall, TASTE BUDS.
  28. Salivary Glands.


    Consists of what 3 glands and contained cells?
    Function: Produce and deposit saliva into oral cavity.

    1) Parotid (para = near + otic = ear): Serous cells:

    2) Sublingual (sub=under + lingual = tongue): Mucous cells

    3) SubMandibular (sub = uner + mandible): Serous & Mucous cells
  29. Of the Parotid, serous cells, what are its 2 characteristics?
    -What muscle does the Parotid duct pass through?

    Of the Sublingual, mucous cells, what is its function?
    • Parotid:
    • 1) Secrete amylase (carbohydrase to digest carb)
    • 2) Lysozymes (to lyse bacteria)

    *Parotid duct passes through buccinator muscle

    Sublingual; mucous cells: secrete lots of mucus for lubrication.
  30. Teeth (hint at bottome of card)

    How many incisors, canine, premolars, molars, and their functions?

    (hint: 2,1,2,3)
    Incisors: 2; (an incision, cut)

    Canine: 1; canis "dog"; for shearing and tearing

    Premolars: 2 (pre = before; molar)

    Molars: 3 (molar = "to mill or grind")