Immunosuppressants

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Author:
manjinder
ID:
146867
Filename:
Immunosuppressants
Updated:
2012-04-10 19:54:00
Tags:
immunology drugs
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Description:
immunosuppressants
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  1. Cyclosporine
    • binds to cyclophilin --> complexe inhibit calcineurin (a cytoplasmic phosphatase, regulates the ability of the nuclear factor of activated T cells to translocate to the nucleus and inc the production of key cytokines such as IL-2, IL-3 and IFN-gamma)
    • Use: suppresses organ rejection, selected autoimmune disorders
    • Toxicity: predisposes patietns to viral infections and lymphoma; nephrotoxic (preventable w/ mannitol diuresis); gout
  2. Tacrolimus
    • binds to FK-binding protein --> complexe inhibit calcineurin (a cytoplasmic phosphatase, regulates the ability of the nuclear factor of activated T cells to translocate to the nucleus and inc the production of key cytokines such as IL-2, IL-3 and IFN-gamma)
    • Use: organ transplant
    • Toxicity: nephrotoxicity, peripheral neurophathy, hypertension, pleural effusion, hyperglycemia
  3. Sirolimus
    • inhibits mTOR. inhibits T-cell proliferation in response to IL-2
    • Use: kidney transplant, drug-eluting stents
    • Toxicity: hyperlipidemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia
  4. Mycophenolate
    • inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme in the de novo pathway of GTP synthesis.
    • Use: sole agent in kidney, liver and heart transplantations.
    • Toxicity: myelosuppression, gastrointestinal disturbances
  5. Azathiopurine
    • immunosuppressant converted to 6-mercaptopurine (purine antimetabolites). inhibit several enzymes involved in purine metabolism.
    • Use: kidney transplantation, autoimmune disorders (glomerulonephritis and hemolytic anemia)
    • Toxicity: Bone marrow suppression. Metabolized by xanthine oxidase thus toxic effects may be inc by allopurinol
  6. Muromonab-CD3
    • target CD3
    • prevent acute transplant rejection
  7. Daclizumab
    • target IL-2 receptor
    • prevent acute rejection of renal transplant
  8. Infliximab, Adalimumab
    • TNF-alpha
    • Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoratic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis
  9. Abciximab
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
    • prevent cardiac ischemia in unstable angina and in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention
  10. Trastuzumab
    • erb-B2
    • HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer
  11. Rituximab
    • CD20
    • B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  12. Palivizumab
    respiratory syncytial virus- blocks RSV F protein
  13. Omalizumab
    • target IgE
    • additional line of treatment for severe asthma
  14. alpha-interferon
    hepatitis B and C, Kaposi's sarcoma, leukemias, malignant melanoma
  15. beta-interferon
    multiple sclerosis
  16. gamma-interferon
    chronic granulomatous disease
  17. oprelvekin (IL-11), thrombopoietin
    Thrombocytopenia

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