Psycholgy

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Anonymous
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146875
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Psycholgy
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2012-04-10 20:23:19
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Learning
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all of chapter 7
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  1. learning
    a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
  2. associative learning
    learnign that certian events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
  3. classical conditioning
    a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
  4. behaviorism
    the view that psychology

    1. should be an objective science

    2.studies behavior without reference to mental processes

    Most research psychologist today agree with 1 but not with 2
  5. Unconditioned Response (UR)
    in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the uncondtioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is int he mouth
  6. Unconditioned stimulus (US)
    in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
  7. Conditioned Response (CR)
    in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus CS
  8. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    in classical conditioning, an originally irrevelant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
  9. acquisition
    in classical conditioning, the inital stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begiins triggering the conditioned response.

    in operant conditioning, the threngthening of a reinforces response
  10. higher-order conditioning
    a procedure in ehich the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often wearker) condiioned stumulus.

    example---an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone
  11. extinction
    the diminidhing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
  12. spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance, after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response
  13. generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  14. discrimination
    in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distingusih between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
  15. respondent behavior
    behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
  16. operant conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strenghtened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  17. operant behavior
    behavior that operates on the enviorment, producing consequences
  18. law of effect
    Thorndike's prinicple that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  19. operant chamber
    in operant conditioning research, a chamber (aka Skinners box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pecking
  20. shaping
    an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
  21. reinforcer
    in operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
  22. positive reinforcement
    increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A postive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens te response
  23. negative reinforcement
    • increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stiluli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that. when removed after a response, strenghtens the response
    • (not a punishment)
  24. primary reinforcer
    an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
  25. conditioned reinforcer
    a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer
  26. continuous reinforcement
    reinforceing the desired response evvery time it occurs
  27. partial (intermittent) reinforcement
    reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
  28. fixed-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
  29. variable-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reingorcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
  30. fixed-interval schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response inly after a specified time as elapsed
  31. variable-interval schedule
    in operant conditioining, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
  32. cognitive map
    a mental representation of the layout of one's enviroment, For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have already learned a cognitive map of it
  33. latent learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent untill there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  34. intrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
  35. extrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior to recieve promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
  36. observational learning
    learning by observing others
  37. modeling
    the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  38. mirror neurons
    frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certian actions or when observing another doing so . The brains mirroring of anothers action may enable imitation and empathy.
  39. prosical behavior
    positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior

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