neuro review

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neuro review
2012-04-21 13:28:32
ther ex

opened and closed chains
Show Answers:

  1. What type of muscle is multinucleated?
  2. What is the order of muscle breakdown starting with muscle fibers?
    muscle fibers -> myofibrils -> myofilaments -> actin and myosin
  3. The ANS controls what?
    viceral organs
  4. The CNS controls what?
    brain and spinal cord
  5. The PNS controls what?
    nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
  6. UMN occurs in what system?
    CNS - you heat etc. bc theyre super tight, stretch them out
  7. LMN occurs in what system?
    PNS - strengthen them bc theyre super weak
  8. What type of neuron excites skeletal muscle and contractions-motor activity?
    alpha motor neuron
  9. What type of neuron receies sensory activity from the environment?
    sensory neuron
  10. What type of neuron is a mix of alpha and sensory?
    spinal nerves
  11. What is the area where the nerves meet with the muscles?
    neuromuscular junction
  12. What is a motor unit?
    motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates
  13. What is a motor end plate?
    where nerve fibers are connecting with muscle
  14. What is the all or none principle?
    once a stimulus is applied, idv. muscle fibers of a motor unit will contract to their fullest extent or not at all
  15. What is the inability of contractile and metabolic processes of the muscle fibers to continue supplying the same work output?
  16. What is an increase in muscle size (actual diameter of muscle fiber increases)?
  17. What are specialized nerve endings that detect sensory information concerning movement and posture?
  18. What two muscle organs contain neurological tissue?
    • muscle spindle
    • golgi tendon organ
  19. What is the main sensory organ of a muscle, detecting change in the length of muscle fibers (stretch receptors that receive signal)?
    muscle spindle
  20. What detects change in tension rather than length (helps relax muscle if its too tight)?
    golgi tendon organ
  21. What is the tension/length curve?
    tension a m. fiber develops varies with the length of a fiber

    muscles work better if put on a stretch before its contracted...kicking a ball, throwing a ball
  22. What is kinetic?
    consisting of motions, moving
  23. What are the forces acting on the body during mvmt and the interactions of sequence motion with respect to time and forces (causing mvmt) present?
  24. What are kinematics?
    branch of biomechanics concerned with the description of mvmts of the segments of the body without regard to the forces that caused the mvmt to occur

    -time, space, mass aspects of a moving system
  25. What is a series of links connected in such a way to cause motion?
    kinetic chains

    if 1 link is moved, motion is caused at other links
  26. What type of kinetic chain has a fixed distal segment, and the proximal segments move?
    closed kinetic chain

    • squat- knee and ankle affected
    • push up
  27. What type of kinetic chain has a distal end thats free to move while the proximal segment is stationary?
    open kinetic chain

    • leg raise - knee and ankle not affected
    • chest flies
  28. What are some characteristics of an open kinetic chain?
    • NWB postion
    • distal end free
    • KC interrupted (can complete a motion with 1 jt w/o affecting other jts)
    • trains single jt or m. group
    • must postpone exercise until edema ad inflammation decrease
    • concentric/eccentric
    • body weight/mechanical/manual resistance
  29. What are some characteristics of a closed kinetic chain?
    • approximation of the jts (jts move closer together)
    • WB postition
    • distal end fixed
    • KC operational (affecting multiple jts)
    • trains multiple joints and m. groups
    • allows proprioception to be reestablished early
    • reduces pain if performed submaximally
    • body weight/mechanical/manual resistance
    • resembles more normal functional ADLs
    • concentric/eccentric
  30. What is a steamboat?
    when using 4 way hip to stablize the opposite foot