Psychology

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Author:
melcherrebekah
ID:
146879
Filename:
Psychology
Updated:
2012-04-10 20:54:33
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Memory ch8
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all of memory
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  1. memory
    the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
  2. encoding
    the processing of information into the memory system for example, by extracting meaning
  3. storage
    the retention of encoded information over time
  4. retrieval
    the pricess of getting information out of memory storage
  5. sensory memory
    the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
  6. short-term memory
    activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
  7. long-term memory
    the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences
  8. working memory
    a newer understanding of short- term memory that foucses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory
  9. automatic processing
    unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
  10. effortful processing
    encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
  11. rehearsal
    the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
  12. spacing effect
    the tendency for distributed study or practive to yeild better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  13. serial position effect
    our tendency t orecall best the land and first items in a list
  14. visual encoding
    the encoding of picture images
  15. acoustic encoding
    the encoding of cound, especially the sound of words
  16. semantic encoding
    the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
  17. imagery
    mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful porcoessing, espically when combined with semantic encoding
  18. mnemonics
    memory aids, espically thoes techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
  19. chunking
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically
  20. iconic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
  21. echoic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
  22. long-term potentiation (LTP)
    an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
  23. flashbulb memory
    a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  24. amnesia
    the loss of memory
  25. implicit memory
    retention independent of conscious recollection
  26. explicit memory
    memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
  27. hippocampus
    a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
  28. recall
    • a measure of memory in which the perosn must retrieve information learned earlier
    • as on a fill in the blank test
  29. recognition
    • a measure of memory in which the eprson need only identify items previously learned
    • as on a multiple choice test
  30. relearning
    a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning laterial for a second time
  31. priming
    the activation, often inconsciously, of particular associations in memory
  32. deja vu
    that errie sense that"ive experienecd this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
  33. mood-congrunet memory
    the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
  34. proactive interference
    the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
  35. retroactive interference
    the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
  36. repression
    in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings and memories
  37. misinformation effect
    incorporating misleading informationinto one's memory of an event
  38. source smnesia
    • attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, herd about, read about, or imagined.
    • along with misinofrmation effect is at the heart of many false memories

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