history chapter 6
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Describe the nature and style of representation
- Thomas Paine
- Delegate model of representation
- trustee model of representation
- politico model of representation
- conscience model of representation
- Edmond Burke
- symbolic representation
Delegate model of representation:
legislator does his or her best to discern the will of the people and then act accordingly.
Trustee model of representation:
legislator should consider the will of the people but then do what they think is best for the nation as a whole long term.
Politico model of representation:
legislators should feel free to follow their own judgment on matters where the public remains silent.
Conscience model of representation:
pillow test, representatives are delegates and heed the wishes of constituents but if too disturbing they turn into trustees and vote the other way
18 century listen to the will of the people but protect the general whole.
legislators' job is to speak on behalf of the groups they belong to.
describe relationship between congress and the constitution
- article 1 sec 1
- sec 2
- sec 3
- senator requirements
- sec 7
- sec 8
- elastic clause
established a bicameral legislature
- house members (congress)
- serves for 2 years
- must be 25 years old,
- citizen of the US for at least 7 years and a
- resident of a state where they were elected
- senators are directly elected by voters of their state
- senatorial term is 6 years
- must be 30 years old
- citizen for at least 9 years
- resident of the sate they represent
divides senate into three classes each of which must stand for election ever two years instead of having all the senators come up for election every 6 years.
bill must be approved by majorrity of BOTH houses before it goes to president to become law
if the president fails to sign the bill
in 10 days it becomes law
lists powers of legislative branch includng the elasic clause
congress has the power to make all nessessary and proper to implement any of the other powers mentioned.
congress is divided
- into two with equal numer of
- senators: legislators from each state
- House of Representation: based on population
cencus should be conducted every
10 years and that seats be allocated to each state based on this count
- drawing legislative district boundries to gain political advantage
- packing and cracking
lumping as many opposition voters as posible into one district
involves diluting the majority so no district can win.
- process of shifting the number of seats allotted to each state.
- fasting growing states after each cencs and seats are taken fro slower growing states
House of represenative seats has grown to
describe types of committes in congress
- standing committee
- become experts
- 20 standing committees
- select committees
- conference committee
- joint committee
- standing joint committee
- draft bills for consideration
how many standing committees
- serve in an investigative role but cannot approve legislation.
- when each chamber passes a similar but not identical bill
- they assemble to work out the difference and reach a compromise
- composed of members selected from each chamber
- investigate info concerning congress
standing joint committee
permanent joint committee
describe what committees do
- jurisdiction determines bills
- rules report
first step to taking testimony from witnessess and collecting info on legisation under consideration
second step. LANGUAGE of the bill is hammered down
- third step
- summarizes bill provisions and rationale behind them
help streamline the process to make things fair
describe legislative leadership
- 2 year term
- every member cast vote for speaker
- speaker, majority whip
- president is protempore when vp is MIA
speaker of the house
- refer legislation to committee
- preside over floor proceedings
- apoint member to conference
- set the rules of how legislation will be debated
- establish floor agenda
- assistant to majority leader
- gather support and ensuring and accurate vote count
- work with speaker to coordinate stradegy and to advance goals.
the vice president
- is the president of the senate
- can vote only to break a tie
leaders of both parties in the senate negotiate terms for debate and amendment of a bill scheduled to be sent to the floor
unlimited debate in which one senator or a group of senators keeps talking without interruption unless 3/5 of the chamber (60 senators) votes to end the discussion.
3/5 of the senators (60) must vote to end the discussion of a bill
senator signals to the rest of the chamber that it would be pointless to bring a piece of legislation to the floor because they intend to use delaying tactics to stave off a final vote
longer the member has served, the greater the power
work hard, get along, be polite, keep mouth shut most of time and study the legislative process.
norm that suggestes members of both chambers are expected to become well versed in a small number policy areas
members are expected to support each others initiatives on a you scratch my back ill scratch yours
Pork barrel legislation:
federal money and programs that largely benefit just one state or district. bad
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