Louis Pasteur experiment on the source of living material using the 5 step of
the scientific method:
1. Observation-bacteria spoils milk
2. Question-do cells arise from other cells.
3. Hypothesis-All cells from cells
4. Experiment-Pasteur had to treatment groups a broth that was exposed to preexisting cells
and one that wasn’t.
5. Conclusion-cells formed due to preexisting
cells not from nonliving material
What's the difference between hypothesis and prediction
1. Hypothesis: a proposed explanation
2. Prediction: Something that can be
tested and is correct if the hypothesis is valid
What is Cell Theory?
Cells form from other cells, and are a fundamental unit of structure, function and organization in all living organisim
What is the Theory of Evolution
All species are connected by common
Who was responsible for the Theory of
Evolution by Natural Selection?
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
What are the 2 requirements for Natural Selection?
1. Individuals within a population can vary in traits that are heritable
2. Depending on an individual’s environmental conditions certain heritable traits help individuals reproduce more than others
What’s the difference between evolutionary change and Natural selection?
Evolutionary change affect populations and Natural selection affects individuals.
What is the definition of fitness?
The ability of an individual to produce off spring
What is the definition of adaption?
A trait that increases the fitness in a certain environment
What is the definition of population?
A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time.
What is speciation?
The evolution of 2 or more species from 1 species.
What is the difference between Allopatric vs. Sympatric speciation?
Allopatric is when geographical isolation creates a reproductive barrier, and Sympatric is when something other then geographic isolation creates a reproductive barrier
What are the implication of speciation?
All species past and present trace their ancestry back to one single ancestor
What are the two types of classification of organisms?
Linnean trees and Phylogentetic Trees
What's the difference between Linnean trees and Phylogenetic trees?
Linnean trees give each organism its own place at the end of the tree while relating all living things to each other. Phylogentic tree shows relation between species. The closer the branches the closer the relation between species.
What are the three domains of the phylogenetic tree
Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya
What is Electronegativity
The ability for a atom to attract electrons from another atom that its bonded to.
If atoms are shared equally between each other they are?
non polar covalent bonds
If atoms are are unequally shared between each other they are?
polar covalent bond
What is an ion?
A atom or molecule that carries a charge
What is ionic bond
The transfer of an electron, and resulting in a full charge.
What is Cohesion?
Hydrogen bonds to itself, bonding between like molecules
What is Adhesion?
Hydrogen bonds to other polar molecules, boding between unlike molecules
What is specific heat?
The amount of energy it takes to raise 1 gram of a substance by 1C
What are the physical properties of Amino
Acts as a base and attracts a proton
What are the physical properties of Carboxyl
Acts as a acid and tends to lose a proton
What are the physical properties of Hydroxyl
Highly polar,acts as a weak acid, and drops a proton
What are the four major biological molecules?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, and fats
What are some functions of proteins?
Defense against viruses, Movement, support for cells
What is a peptide bond
the C-N bond
Long chains with Hydrocarbon are associated with?
What feature of amino acids will have optical isomers?
A Carbon with four different atoms or groups attached
What is a structural isomer?
Differs in the order which atoms are attached
What is geometric isomer?
Differ in the arrangement of atoms around a double bond
2 amino acids form_______by________
peptide bonds; condensation or dehydration
What are the 3 types of secondary structure?
Alpha helix, Beta pleated, random coil
What kind of bonds occur in a tetiary structre?
Hydrogen bond, van der Waals, Disulfide bond(covalent), Ionic bond
What is Homeostasis
The array of relatively stable chemical and physical conditions in an animals cells, tissue and organs
What did the Urey-Miller experiment demonstrate?
it demonstrated that amino acids could form spontaneously under certain conditions and amino acids are the bldg. blocks of protiens
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids
RNA and DNA
Nucleic acids are made up of monomers called?
What are the 3 components of nucleotides?
Sugar, Phosphate group and Nitrogen base
What are the 4 ribonucleotides?
What are the 4 dexoyribonucleotides
What is the bond between nucleotides in DNA and RNA?
What nitrogeneous bases are in ribonucleotides?
What are the nitrogenous bases in deoxyribonucleotides
What do ribozymes catalyze?
Hydrolysis and condensation of phophodiester linkage
What do all sugars have in common?
Carbonyl group and hydroxyl group
What are the monomers of carbohydrates?
What connects monosaccharides?
Cellulose is a polymer of?
Starch and glycogen are polymers of?
What is Chitin?
A polysaccharide that stiffens the cell walls of fungi
What is the definition of lipids
non polar, hydrophobic, carbon containing compounds
What is the name of the linkage between fatty acid and glycerol?
which fatty acid is considered good?
Which fatty acids are bad
What are the 3 kinds of sterols?
What is the definition of amphipathic? And give an example.
Compounds that contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic element.(phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails)
Ions don’t_____ through- CL+, Na-.
Large Uncharged Molecules ___________through-glucose, sucrose
Small Uncharged Polar molecules _______through- H2O, Urea, Glycerol
Hydrophobic Molecules _______through- 02, N2, CO2
What is a Micelles and what is it made of
Micelles are short circular hydrocarbon side
chains(circular with water on outside but none inside)