Andy's bio 3

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Andy's bio 3
2012-04-11 01:25:43
Andy bio

Andy's bio 3
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  1. Exotoxins
    toxins released by the bacteria during their lifetime
  2. Endotoxins
    toxins released after the death and breakdown of the bacteria
  3. Obligate Anaerobes
    are killed by o2
  4. Acrosome
    contains hydrolytic enzymes that enable sperm to penetrate ovum
  5. # of unique haploid gametes an organism can form
    • 2^n (haploid #)
    • ie. for humans is 2^23
  6. G2 phase
    growth occurs as celll prepares to divide
  7. Glucocorticoids (examples?)
    • raise blood glucose levels by promoting protein breakdown and gluconeogenesis
    • synthesized by adrenal cortex.
    • (examples: cortisol and cortisone)
  8. Inner ear
    • cochlea
    • vestibular apparatus (imp for equilibrium)
    • Basilar Membrane
    • ---hairs are stimulated and transduced to AP's which travel via cochlea nerve to brain
  9. Sere
    • a community stage in an ecological succession. Identified with a dominant species
    • (i.e. in grassland community grass is dominant)
  10. Algae
    • 1 of 2 protista categories
    • Include phytoplankton
    • Euglena
  11. Echinoderms (examples)
    • spiny, radically symmetrical
    • water-vascular system
    • can regenerate parts
    • possible link with chordates
    • (seafish, sea urchin)
  12. Adrenal Medulla
    an adrenal gland (producing epinephrine and norepinephrine (amino acid derived compounds called catecholammes)
  13. Operator
    non transcribable DNA that serves as the repressor binding site
  14. Active immunity
    Production of antibodies during immune response-can be conferred by vaccination
  15. Choroid
    • Layer beneath sclera which help supply the retina with blood
    • is a dark pigmented area that reduces reflection in the eyes
  16. Chordates (chordates that are not vertebrates?)
    • stiff dorsal rod called "notochord" and tail as some stage of embryo
    • paired gill slits
    • (lancelets and tunicates and amphioxus are chordates but not vertebrates. vertebrates are the most advanced chordates)
  17. Luteal Phase
    • 3rd phase
    • following ovulation LH induces the ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum which secretes estrogen + progesterone (preparing the endometrium for implantation of the embryo) LH and FSH inhibited
  18. Hydrostatic skeletons found in which animals?
    most cnidarians, flatworms/planarians, nematodes, annelids, and snails
  19. Annelida
    • (segmented worms)
    • possess a coelom in mesoderm (true body cavity)
    • well defined NS, circ. system, excret. system
    • (earthworms, leeches)
  20. Nematoda
    • (round worms, hookworm, trichina)
    • long digestive tubes and an anus
    • solid mesoderm
    • no circ. systems
    • nerve cords and anterior nerve ring
  21. Platyhelminthes
    • (flatworms)
    • 3 layers of cells (including mesoderm)
    • no circulatory system
    • NS consists of eyes, an ant. brain ganglion and a pair of longit. nerve cords.
  22. Antibody
    • protein secreted by B cells that bind to a particular antigen and mark it for elimination
    • a.k.a. immunoglobulin
    • y shaped
  23. Protozoa (it's phyla)
    • one of 2 major group of protista
    • heterotrophic
    • Phyla.....
    • 1. Rhizopods-move with use of pseudopods (ie. amoeba)
    • 2. ciliophers...have cilia used for locomotion and feeding
  24. Bacterial shapes
    • Bacterial shapes
    • Cocci-round
    • Bacilli-rods
    • Spirilla-spiral
    • Staphylococci-clusters
    • Streptococci-chains
  25. cyanobacteria
    • (blue-green algae)
    • live mainly in fresh water
    • photosynthetic pigments
    • no flagella, chloroplasts, or mitochondria
    • believed to be directly descended from 1st organism with photosynthetic capabilities