Andy's bio 4

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thinkrussia
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146964
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Andy's bio 4
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2012-04-11 02:39:28
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Andy's bio 4
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  1. Clotting cascade
    • platelets in conjunction with damaged tissue release thromboplastion, which with Ca2 and Vit K convert prothrombus to Phrombin
    • Prothrombin----->thromboplastin ---->thrombin ----->fibrinogen ---->fibrin
  2. Mollusca (examples)
    • possess mantles (which often secrete CaCO3 exoskeletons
    • breathe by gills
    • chambered hearts and blood sinuses
    • pair of ventral nerve cords
  3. Telencephalon
    • major component is cerebral (convoluted gray matter) cortex which processes + integrates
    • sensory input and motor responses
    • Imp. for memory and creative though
    • Olfactory bulb
  4. Spermatogenesis
    • Many diploid spermatagonia are formed through mitosis in seminiferous tubules
    • when mature undergo modification to become 1o spermatocytes
    • Undergo 1st meitotic division to form haploid 2o spermatocytes
    • Undergo meiosis II to form 4 haploid cells (spermatids)
    • Undergo more modification before become sperm (spermatozoa)
  5. Diencephalon
    • contains thalamus and hypothalamus
    • Thalamus: relay and integr. for spinal cord and cerebral cortex
    • Hypothalamus : hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, BP, temp. reg., endocrine...
  6. Anther
    Which part of the flower produces manoploid cells which develop into pollen grains
  7. Calcitonin
    • reduces plasma Ca2+ by inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from bone regulated by: plasma Ca2+ levels is antagonistic to parathyroid hormones
    • Remember: PTH increases Ca2+ Calcitonin 'tones down' Ca2+
  8. Respiration in Annelids
    circulatory system brings 02 to the cells and waste products back to skin, mucus and ext. surface provides a moist surface for gas exchange
  9. Tracheophyta
    • complex vascular plants
    • contain xylem and phloem (food)
    • radial symmetry
    • anchored by deep roots
    • sporophyte generation dominants
  10. Echinodermata
    • a deuterostome coelomate
    • embryos are bilatterally symetrical (like chordata)
    • Adults demonstrate radial symettry

    ie. starfish
  11. Opalinda
    • very minor phylum
    • enternal parasites in nonmamallian vertebrates
    • have 2 or more nuclei
  12. Psilophyta
    • most primitive of tracheophytes
    • contain rhizoids instead of roots
    • one vascular bundle in the leaves
    • psilotam (tropical genus)
  13. Pyrrophyta
    • almost all are dinoflagellates
    • pair of flagella
    • photosynthetic forms exist
    • cell walls of cellulose
    • only eukaryotes with single layer nucleus membrane
  14. Deuteromycota
    comprises all form in which a sexual cycle has not been discovered
  15. a Seed contains
    a partially developed sporophyte that has been arrested in it development
  16. Alternation of generations in seed plants
    • sporophyte is dominant
    • gametophyte is reduced to a dependant structure within archegonium of the sporophyte
  17. Acoelomate pratostome
    • 1. Platyhelminthes-simplest of the triploblastic animals
    • classes: turbellaria-circulation is very limited. 3 others are parasitic:
    • Monogenea: hermaphrodites
    • Trematoda (flukes): have intermediate hosts
    • Cestoda: tapeworms
  18. Protostomes
    • Mesoderm arises from a single cell determined early in development
    • blastopore forms the mouth and amines is formed secondarily
    • Major Phyla
    • 1. Platyhelminthes
    • 2. Nematoda
    • 3. Mollusca
    • 4. Annelida
    • 5. Arthropodo
  19. Gymnosperms (divisions?)
    • naked seeds
    • 4 divisions
    • 1. cycadophyta-resemble palms; warm climates
    • 2. Ginkgophyta-gingko tree (dioecious)
    • 3. Gnetophyta-gnetum vine/ephedra,desert shrub/welnitshcia
    • 4. coniferophyta-monoecious (female cones bigger)
  20. Dicotyledons
    • veined leaves
    • vascular bundles around a central ring
    • 2 cotyledons in seed
    • have cambium
    • flower parts in 4-5
    • Rosaceae=roses, strawberries, common fruits
    • Leguminosae=veggies
  21. Annelids and its classes
    • segmented bodies
    • classes
    • 1. polychaeta "many gristles"
    • 2. Oligochaeta "few bristles"
    • 3. Hirudinea "leeches"
  22. Fungi (structure and division)
    • restricted mobility
    • subdivided into cells by walls (septa) which are semi-porous
    • Coenocytic structure
    • Mycelium-entire filamenfous mass
    • Divisions
    • 1. Zygomycota
    • 2. Ascomycota
    • 3. Basidiomycota
    • 4. Deuteromycota
  23. Centrosome
    • occurs in most animal cells and some fungi
    • is a region just outside nuclear membrane
    • contains 2 pairs of centrioles which migrate to opposite poles during prophase
  24. Monocotyledons
    • parallel veins
    • scattered vascular bundle
    • single cotyledon seeds
    • no cambrium (non woody)
    • Flower parts in 3
    • example....grass, pineapple, palms
  25. Rickettsiae
    • causes mountain fever
    • minute bacterial cells

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