vertebral column

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  1. How many vertebrae do we have after fusion occurs?
  2. How many vertebrae do we have before fusion occurs?
  3. How many of each type of vertebrae do we have in the body?
    • 7 cervical (convex/lordosis)
    • 12 thoracic (concave/kyphosis)
    • 5 lumbar (convex/lordosis)
    • 5 sacral (concave/kyphosis)-fused
    • 3-5 coccygeal (coccyx)-fused
  4. Where are the intervertebral discs located, and how many are there?
    between vertebrae

  5. What is the function of intervertebral discs?
    • absorb shock
    • allows mvmt between vertebrae
  6. What is the outer fibrous ring of the interveterbral disc called?
    annulus fibrous
  7. What is the inner soft ring of the intervertebral disc called?
    nucleus pulposus

    high water content, in center of disc
  8. If a pt bends backwards, which way are the discs going to move?
    pushed forward (anterior)
  9. If a pt bends forward, which way are the discs going to move?
    discs pushed backwards (posterior)
  10. What are some reasons for loss of sustance of a disc?
    • rupture of nucleus pulposus (HNP)
    • DJD (degenerative jt disease)
    • CA/tumor
  11. What is another name for the rupture of nucleus pulposus?
    herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)
  12. What are some functions of the curves in the spine?
    • increase strength/stability
    • increase resilience (elasticity/flexability)
    • helps maintain the upright posture
  13. What are some functions of the vertebral column?
    • support hed and body
    • protection for spinal cord
    • muscular attachment
  14. What is another name and some characteristics for the vertebral body?

    • anterior, weight bearing
    • gets largers the farther down you go
  15. What vertebrae have no body?
    C1, C2
  16. What is another name for the vertebral arch?
    neural arch

    connects arches, posterior portion
  17. What 3 types of processes are in a vertebra?
    • spinous
    • transverse
    • articular
  18. Where are spinous processes located, and whats their function?
    posteriorly and inferiorly from the junction of the lamina

    muscle and ligament attachements

    pokey part you can touch on your back, stick out
  19. Where are the transverse processes located, and whats their function?
    where lamina and pedicle meet; they extend laterally on each side

    muscle and ligament attachement
  20. What is another name for the articular processes?
    articular facets.....where 2 vertebrae articulate
  21. What 2 types of articular facets are there on a vertebra?
    • superior articular facet
    • inferior articular facet
  22. What are some functions of facets?
    • shape and direction determines the type of mvmt between the vertebra
    • prevent the vertebrae from slipping forward
    • bears weight temporarily when one arises from a flexed position
  23. What type of mvmt do facets allow in the lumbar region?
  24. What type of mvmt do facets allow in the thoracic region?
  25. What type of mvmts do facets allow in the cervical region?
  26. What is the big hole in the middle of a vertebra for the spinal cord?
    neural/vertebral foramina

    formed by the body and neural arch
  27. What is formed by the superior vertebra notch of the vertebra below, and the inferior vertebrae notch of the vertebra above?
    intervertebral foramina
  28. What type of foramina is only in the cervical region?

    on the sides for the vertebral artery
  29. What doe the spinous processes of C2-C6 look like?
    short and bifid with a cleft (bifurcated)
  30. What vertebra supports the head?
    C1-atlas.....has no body or spinous processes
  31. What joint articulates the atlas and the occupital condyles of the skull?
    atlanto-occiptal joint

  32. What vertebra is the only one that contains a dens (odontoid process)?
    C2, axis
  33. What joint articulates the atlas and axis?
    atlantoaxial joint

  34. What is another name for the C7 vertebra?
    vertebral prominens
  35. In what region do the ribs articulate?
    thoracic region....costovertebral facets
  36. In what plane are the costovertebral facets/thoracic lumbar facets located?

    sidebending, rotation
  37. In what plane are the lumbar facets located?
    sagittal plane

  38. What type of vertebrae are the largest and strongest?
  39. What is the function of the sacral vertebrae?
    5fused together

    strong foundation for the pelvic girdle?
  40. How many fused vertebrae make up the coccygeal vertebrae?
    • 3-5
    • articulates with sacrum
  41. Which vertebral column ligament limits extension, is on the side of the vertebral body, and fuses with the sacrum?
    anterior longitudinal ligament

    more superior, the more thiner
  42. Which vertebral column ligament limits flexion, and runs on he backside of the vertebral body?
    posterior longitudinal ligament

    more inferior, the more thiner
  43. What vertebral ligament connects adjacent laminae anteriorly?
    ligamentum flava
  44. What vertebral ligament runs along the tips of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum?
    supraspinous ligament
  45. Ligamentum nuchae is found where?
    only in the cervical spine, and takes place of supraspinous and interspinous ligaments....ends at C7
  46. What vertebral ligament is between successive spinous processes starting at T1 and below?
    interspinous ligaments
  47. Flex, ext, and hyperextension occur in what plane on what axis?
    sagittal plane on a frontal axis
  48. Rotation occurs on what plane and what axis?
    transverse plane on a vertical axis
  49. Lateral side bending occurs on what plane and what axis?
    frontal plane on a sagittal axis
  50. Mvmts of the vertebral column are limited by what?
    • ligaments
    • muscles
    • rins
  51. Most mvmts in the lumbar spine occur between which vertebrae?
    L4-5, L5-S1

    lumbar spine is most often injured, bears most weight
  52. Intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies are what type of joint?
    amphiarthrodial (cartilaginous)
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vertebral column
vert. column
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