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How many vertebrae do we have after fusion occurs?
How many vertebrae do we have before fusion occurs?
How many of each type of vertebrae do we have in the body?
- 7 cervical (convex/lordosis)
- 12 thoracic (concave/kyphosis)
- 5 lumbar (convex/lordosis)
- 5 sacral (concave/kyphosis)-fused
- 3-5 coccygeal (coccyx)-fused
Where are the intervertebral discs located, and how many are there?
What is the function of intervertebral discs?
- absorb shock
- allows mvmt between vertebrae
What is the outer fibrous ring of the interveterbral disc called?
What is the inner soft ring of the intervertebral disc called?
high water content, in center of disc
If a pt bends backwards, which way are the discs going to move?
pushed forward (anterior)
If a pt bends forward, which way are the discs going to move?
discs pushed backwards (posterior)
What are some reasons for loss of sustance of a disc?
- rupture of nucleus pulposus (HNP)
- DJD (degenerative jt disease)
What is another name for the rupture of nucleus pulposus?
herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)
What are some functions of the curves in the spine?
- increase strength/stability
- increase resilience (elasticity/flexability)
- helps maintain the upright posture
What are some functions of the vertebral column?
- support hed and body
- protection for spinal cord
- muscular attachment
What is another name and some characteristics for the vertebral body?
- anterior, weight bearing
- gets largers the farther down you go
What vertebrae have no body?
What is another name for the vertebral arch?
connects arches, posterior portion
What 3 types of processes are in a vertebra?
Where are spinous processes located, and whats their function?
posteriorly and inferiorly from the junction of the lamina
muscle and ligament attachements
pokey part you can touch on your back, stick out
Where are the transverse processes located, and whats their function?
where lamina and pedicle meet; they extend laterally on each side
muscle and ligament attachement
What is another name for the articular processes?
articular facets.....where 2 vertebrae articulate
What 2 types of articular facets are there on a vertebra?
- superior articular facet
- inferior articular facet
What are some functions of facets?
- shape and direction determines the type of mvmt between the vertebra
- prevent the vertebrae from slipping forward
- bears weight temporarily when one arises from a flexed position
What type of mvmt do facets allow in the lumbar region?
What type of mvmt do facets allow in the thoracic region?
What type of mvmts do facets allow in the cervical region?
What is the big hole in the middle of a vertebra for the spinal cord?
formed by the body and neural arch
What is formed by the superior vertebra notch of the vertebra below, and the inferior vertebrae notch of the vertebra above?
What type of foramina is only in the cervical region?
on the sides for the vertebral artery
What doe the spinous processes of C2-C6 look like?
short and bifid with a cleft (bifurcated)
What vertebra supports the head?
C1-atlas.....has no body or spinous processes
What joint articulates the atlas and the occupital condyles of the skull?
What vertebra is the only one that contains a dens (odontoid process)?
What joint articulates the atlas and axis?
What is another name for the C7 vertebra?
In what region do the ribs articulate?
thoracic region....costovertebral facets
In what plane are the costovertebral facets/thoracic lumbar facets located?
In what plane are the lumbar facets located?
What type of vertebrae are the largest and strongest?
What is the function of the sacral vertebrae?
strong foundation for the pelvic girdle?
How many fused vertebrae make up the coccygeal vertebrae?
- articulates with sacrum
Which vertebral column ligament limits extension, is on the side of the vertebral body, and fuses with the sacrum?
anterior longitudinal ligament
more superior, the more thiner
Which vertebral column ligament limits flexion, and runs on he backside of the vertebral body?
posterior longitudinal ligament
more inferior, the more thiner
What vertebral ligament connects adjacent laminae anteriorly?
What vertebral ligament runs along the tips of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum?
Ligamentum nuchae is found where?
only in the cervical spine, and takes place of supraspinous and interspinous ligaments....ends at C7
What vertebral ligament is between successive spinous processes starting at T1 and below?
Flex, ext, and hyperextension occur in what plane on what axis?
sagittal plane on a frontal axis
Rotation occurs on what plane and what axis?
transverse plane on a vertical axis
Lateral side bending occurs on what plane and what axis?
frontal plane on a sagittal axis
Mvmts of the vertebral column are limited by what?
Most mvmts in the lumbar spine occur between which vertebrae?
lumbar spine is most often injured, bears most weight
Intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies are what type of joint?