Patho chapter 3

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tville01
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Patho chapter 3
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2012-04-13 07:31:49
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Patho chapter 3
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  1. Foreign substances that when encountered by the Immune system elicit a response
    antigen
  2. Proteins that are produced by the body in reponse to a specific antigen and are capable of reacting against it
    antibodies
  3. An allergy for which there is a genetic predisposition
    atopy
  4. anitgen that triggers an allergic response
    allergen
  5. How do allergens enter the body
    • inhalation
    • ingestion
    • injection
  6. What occurs during the initial exposure of an allergen
    • B cells are activated and become plasma cells
    • IgE forms
    • subsequent exposure will now cause allergic reactions
  7. What does IgE attch itself to
    • membranes of:
    • mast cells of CT
    • basophils
  8. What cell releases it's granules that are filled with chemical mediators(histamine) when the allergen is encountered and combines with IgE
    mast cells
  9. What cell has granules that contain histaminase, and help to control allergic reactions
    eosinophils
  10. Systemic allergic reaction to an allergen
    anaphylactic shock
  11. Which of the following cells are involved in the production of antibodies?
    1. neutrophils
    2. helper T cells
    3. B lymphocytes
    4. killer T cells
    5.monocytes
    • helper T cells
    • B lymphocytes
  12. What are antigen capturing cells?
    1. macrophages
    2. natural killer cells
    3. memory T cells
    4. B lymphocytes
    macrophages
  13. Which cells process and present the antign?
    macrophages
  14. Which immunogobulin is involved in immune reponse?
    IgE
  15. Which cell facilitates the overall activity of the immune reponse and controls all the cells of the immune system?
    CD4/ T-helper cells
  16. Which of the following chemical mediators stimulate the proliferation of B and T cells?
    A.leukotrienes
    B.cytokines
    C.prostoglandins
    D.complement
    B.cytokines
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. What does the term seroconversion mean in relation to HIV and AIDS?
    HIV antibodies have been found in the blood
  18. What organism often causes severe respiratory problems and often death of AIDS patients?
    Pneumocytosis carinii
  19. What is the etiology of SLE?
    A. It is an autoimmune disease
    B. It is caused by a viral infection
    C. It is a neoplastic disorder
    D. It is an autosomal recessive disorder
    A. It is an autoimmune disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. What criterion in a medical diagnosis lab will change the diagnosis from HIV positive to AIDS?
    CD4 cells fall below a certain level
  21. How could passive immunity be aquired?
    1. an injection of antivenom following a snakebite
    2.measles vaccine
    3.hepatitis B immumogobulin injection
    4.infection of chickenpox
    1 and 3
  22. What causes an Inflammatory reaction during allergies?
    Chemical mediators
  23. What cells of the gastric glands interact with Histamine?
    Parietal cells
  24. What innflammatory respons occurs as a result of the interaction of Histamine with Histamine receptors on the parietal cells? What signs and symptoms occur?
    • Increased HCL which causes:
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
  25. What are the signs and symptoms of anaphlactic shock in order of occurence?
    • tingling or itching over body
    • flushing and headache
    • difficulty breathing due to bronchioconstriction and larygeal edema
  26. Anaphaylactic shock occurs from a massive release of _______
    Histamine
  27. What is the treatment for anaphylactic shock?
    Epinephrine within 15 minutes
  28. What does Epinephrine do when administered during anaphaylactic shock?
    causes vasoconstriction which increases BP and allows airways to open
  29. What are the treatment plans for allergies?
    • Skin Test
    • Desenitization
    • Antihistamines
  30. Which allergy treatment contains IgG, which compete with allergens on the bonding site of mast cells, and may stimulate suppresor T cells which suppress the production of IgE?
    desensitization
  31. How do antihistamines work?
    they compete with Histamine-1 receptor sites on the effector structure, blocking the response of the tissue to release histamine
  32. The ability of the Immune system to distinguish between self and non-self
    immune response
  33. A disease where the body produces antibodies against its own cells and tissues
    autoimmune
  34. What is the etiology of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?
    • Idiopathic
    • Multifactoral based on:
    • gender & age- effects more females
    • race- Higher in africans, hispanics, asians, &indians
    • enviorment-UV light
  35. What organ systems are involved in SLE?
    chronic multi-system disesase
  36. What diagnostica procedures are used to identify SLE?
    • History& physical
    • Positive SLE cell preperation
    • ANA test
    • Urinalysis
    • CBC(complete blood count)
    • ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
  37. When testing for SLE what test looks for LE cells in the blood serum by looking at neutorphils that have nuclear material from the cells they have phaygocytized?
    positive SLE cell preperation
  38. When testing for SLE what test looks for antinuclear antibodies and is postitive more than 95% of the time?
    ANA
  39. When doing a urinalysis on a patient believed to have SLE what irregularities would be found in the urine sample?
    • proteins
    • RBC& casts
  40. A person with SLE would have a ______ amount of RBC, WBC, and platelets in a CBC test
    decreased
  41. A person with SLE would have a ______ESR test
    elevated
  42. What are the complications of SLE?
    • kidney failure
    • endocardial degeneration
    • anemia
  43. What are the treatment plans for someone with SLE?
    • corticosteroids(prednisone)
    • NSAID(nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs)
    • avoid UV light
  44. What is the prognosis for a patient with SLE?
    • chronic disease
    • depends on location of disease, worse in kidneys and brain
  45. What is the etiology of AIDS?
    Human Immunodeficiency virus(HIV)
  46. Explain the genetic makeup of HIV including protein coat
    • retrovirus
    • 2 identical strands of RNA
    • capsid composed of protein p24
  47. HIV is a member of what subfamily?
    Lentiviruses
  48. What is the enzyme that HIV contains and how does it work
    • reverse transcriptase
    • Allows it's RNA into host DNA
  49. How can HIV become inactivated
    • temps above 60o C (140o F)
    • autocalving and disinfectants
  50. How is HIV transmitted?
    • STD
    • Circumcision
    • Drug abuse
    • Mother - Infant
    • Blood transfusion
    • Occupation
  51. What are the target cells of HIV?
    CD 4 T helper cells
  52. What are the pathophysiology stages of HIV?
    • pimary infection
    • latent phase
    • AIDS
  53. During the primary infection stage of HIV the individual will experience ______ - _____ _______ and test HIV antibody _______.
    • flu-like symptoms
    • negative
  54. Is a person still contagious while in the primary infection stage of HIV?
    yes
  55. What is the lag time/window period in a person with HIV?
    • 2 weeks- 6 months
    • average of 3-7 weeks
  56. What occurs during the latent phase of HIV?
    • HIV antibodies positive
    • CD4 T helper cells decrease
  57. What occurs during the AIDS satge of HIV?
    • CD4 T helper cells drop below 200 mm3
    • Immune system becomes incompetent
    • Opportunistic infections occur
  58. What opportunistic Infections occur during the AIDS stage of HIV?
    • Pneumocytosis pneumonia
    • Tuberculosis
    • Herpes Simplex
    • Candidiasis
    • GI disorders
    • HIV encephalopathy(AIDS dementia)
    • Kaposi's Sarcoma
  59. What are the diagnostic procedures for HIV?
    • ELISA(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
    • Western blot test
    • *ELISA 1st, if positive repeat, if positive 2nd time do western blot*
    • polymerase chain reaction
    • rapid HIV antibody test
  60. Which HIV testing is helpful in diagnosisng newborns?
    • polmerase chain reaction
    • dectects viral RNA & DNA instesad of antibodies
  61. Which HIV diagnostic test uses saliva?
    rapid HIV antibody test
  62. What are normal CD4 T helper cell values?
    800-1200 mm3
  63. What are the complications for AIDS?
    • maignant neoplasms
    • opportunistic infections
  64. What is the prognosis for AIDS?
    chronic disesase
  65. What treatments are available for patients with HIV?
    • Antibiotics for infections
    • Antiviral drugs (AZT) inhibits viral replication by inhibiting HIV enzyme
    • Protease inhibitors
    • HAART-used to prolong latent stage
    • PEP(post-exposure prophylaxis

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