Immunology and Serology

Card Set Information

Immunology and Serology
2012-04-11 14:53:46
Tumor Immunology Transplantation

Tumor and transplant immunology
Show Answers:

  1. A potentially lifesaving treatment for, endstage organ
    failure cancersa autoimmune diseases immune deficiencies a variety of other
  2. What will an allogenic response result in?
    Graft rejection in solid organ and stem cell transplantation. Graft versus host
  3. Transfer of living cells, tissues and organs from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another.
    Graft or Translplant
  4. What are the 3 class I antigens and what cells are they expressed on?
    • HLA - A
    • HLA - B
    • HLA - C
    • Expressed on most cells
  5. What are the 3 class II antigens and what cells are they expressed on?
    • HLA - DR
    • HLA - DQ
    • HLA - DP
    • expressed on cells of lymphoid system
  6. HLA are responsible for what two important roles?
    • development
    • function of the innate and adaptive immune systems
  7. What is a cardinal feature of the genes encoding the HLA protein?
    extensive degree of allelic polymorphism
  8. The most polymorphic genetic system in humans.
    HLA system
  9. Although the HLA system has successfully enabled populations to survive infectious challanges what is the a downfall?
    it severely restricts the ability to transplant foreign tissues or cells between any two individuals
  10. What is a second set of transplantation antigens?
    minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA)
  11. Does MHC (HLA) matching prevent rejection?
    It reduces rejection but there are still minor histocomtability antigens. (mHA)
  12. How is MHC polymorphisms identified?
    • Formally, HLA typing and MLR
    • Now, DNA testing allele-specific PCR and sequencing
  13. Finding a donor who shares the HLA antigens of the recipient, to minimize antigen disparities
    Requires donor and recipient antigens to be identified
  14. Testing the SERUM of the recipient for antibodies against the donor antigens
  15. Exposure to non-self HLA can cause ?
    production of HLA-directed antibodies
  16. Common causes of HLA-sensitization include?
    • Blood transfusions
    • Pregnancies
    • Previous transplants
  17. Tissue patches implanted during cardiac surgery cause sensitization in....
  18. The MHC class I–related chain A (MICA) encodes a cell surface protein that is involved in....
    gamma/delta T cell responses
  19. Name 6 cells that MIC proteins are expressed on:
    • endothelial cells
    • keratinocytes
    • Fibroblasts
    • epithelial cells
    • dendritic cells
    • monocytes
  20. MIC proteins are not expressed on what cells?
    T or B lymphocytes
  21. MICA has been associated with what?
    • Rejection episodes
    • Decreased grapt survival
  22. Carbohydrate structures expressed on many tissues and
    Including endothelium of organ transplants
    ABO antigens
  23. Are one of several types of cell surface molecules that
    regulate the activity of natural killer (NK)
    Another polymorphic genetic system that impacts allogeneic transplantation
    killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) system
  24. Within the KIRs are:
    activating inhibitory receptors that vary in number and type on any individual NK cell
  25. The transfer of tissuefrom one area of the body to another of the same individual
  26. The transfer of cells or tissues between identical twins
    syngeneic graft (isograft)
  27. The transfer of cells or tissue between two individuals of the same species
    Accounting for most transplantation
  28. The transfer of tissue between two individuals of different species
  29. The recipient immune system recognizes foreign HLA
    proteins via these two distinct mechanisms—
    direct and indirect allorecognition
  30. Direct or indirect allorecognition:
    Recipient T cells bind and
    Responddirectly to foreign (allo) HLA proteins on graft cells
    Direct allorecognition
  31. Direct or indirect allorecognition:
    second pathway by which the immune system recognizes foreign HLA protein
  32. The effector responses against transplanted allogeneic
    tissue include:
    • direct cytotoxicity
    • delayed hypersensitivity reponses
    • antibody-mediated mechanisms
  33. What are three types of transplant graft rejection?
    • Antibody mediated rejection (AMR)
    • Cellular rejection
    • Chronic rejection
  34. Occurs within minutes to hours
    Occurs after the vascular supply to the transplanted organ is established
    Hyperacute rejection
  35. Recipient–donor pairs must be ABO identical or
    compatible for the prevention of incompatibility reaction?
    ABO blood group incompatibility
  36. Develops days to weeks after transplant
    This is a cellular-type rejection but may also involve
    Acute cellular rejection
  37. What are the predisposingfactors impact the development of chronic rejection?
    • Prolonged cold ischemia
    • Reperfusion
    • Acute rejection episodes
    • Toxicity from immunosuppressive drugs