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What makes up an intermediate junction?
E-Cadherin connected to actin filaments.
- Lateral Meniscus
- Medial Collateral Ligament
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis
- Tendon of Supraspinatous most commonly affected.
- Pain anterior and superior to glenohumeral joint during abduction.
- Freq. Inferior than Anterior
- Can strech axillary or radial nerve
Surgical Neck Humeral Fracture?
- Axillary Nerve Lesioned
- Circumflex humeral artery lacerated.
Greater Tubercle Humerus Fracture
- Detachment of rotator cuff muscles.
- Remaining rotator cuff muscle (subscapularis) mediallry rotates humorous.
Midshaft fracture of humerus
- Radial Nerve lesion
- Profound brachial artery laceration
Supracondylar fracture of the humerus
- Contraction of tricep and brachialis
- Median nerve is lesioned
What are the action of the Lumbricals
- Separated into Median and Ulnar distributions
- Flex MCPs
- Extend PIP and DIPs
Type 1 versus Type II muscles
Type I = The Better Kind! Why? Because this is the kind you have. Red fibers, use mitochondria. Slow twitch.
Type II = Fast twich, anerobic.
What is an osteoma?
It is a bone growth associated with Gardner's Syndrome, which is a subset of FAP.
What is an osteoid osteoma?
It is a interlacing trabeculae of woven bone surrounded by osteoblasts found in proximal tibia and femur. Most common in men < 25.
Same osteoid osteoma, but found in vertebral column.
- Also called giant cell tumor.
- Occurs most frequently at epiphyseal ends of long bones. Peak incidence 20-40 years.
- Locally aggressive benign tumor often around the distal femur, proximal tibial region. Knee.
- Characterstic double bubble or soap bubble appaearance on xray.
- Spindle shaped multinucleated giant cells on histology.
- Most common benign bone tumor. Mature bone with cartilaginous cap. Usually in men <25 years old. Commonly orignates from long metaphysis.
- Rarely transforms to malignant chondrosarcoma
Beningn cartilationous neoplasm found in intramedullary bone. Usually distal extremeties (contrast with Osteosarcoma which is around the knee!!)
- 2nd most common primary malingant tumor of bone after MM.
- Peak incidence men 10-20 years.
- Found in metaphysis of long bones around knees.
- Risk factors: Paget's disease, bone infarcts, radiation, famililal RB.
- Poor prognosis
- Codman't triangle/sunburst pattern on Xray
- Anaplastic small blue cell malignant tumor.
- Most common in boys < 15.
- Ewings and onion rings onion skin appearance in bone.
- t(11;22) 11+22=33 Patrick Ewing's Jersey Number
- Malignant Cartilagionous tumor. Most common in men age 30-60. Usually located in pelvis spine, humerus tibia and femur.
- Can derive from osteochondroma.
Appearance of Pseudogout versus Uric Acid Crystals
- Uric Acid: Parallel Light = Yellow
- Perpendicular Light = Blue
- Pseudogot (calcium pyrophosphate crystals)
- Parallel Light = Blue
- Perpendicular Light = Yellow
What Emily has! Freckles! Normal number of melanocytes. Just more pigment.
- allergic rhinitis/sinusitis