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2012-04-13 13:29:22

Neuro final Sem2
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  1. X-linked filamin defect
    • Filamin A is an actin-binding protein important for initiation of migration
    • X-LINKED
    • Males - Die in eutero
    • Heterozygous females - Late onset seisure and some mild retardation
  2. Doublecortin (DCX) defect
    • Doublecortin (DC X-linked) is a microtubule- associated protein important for staying on the migration path migration.
    • X-LINKED
    • Males - X-linked lissencephaly (“smooth brain” with no gyri) or pachygyria (fewer than normal gyri) and severe retardation
    • Heterozygous Females - double cortex (subcortical laminar band heterotopia, SBH)
  3. Miller-Dieker Syndrome
    • LIS1 gene defect (on chromosome 17) codes for a microtubule-associated protein important for maintaining the proper speed of migration
    • Autosomal - severe mental retardation- thickened cortex and paucity of gyri and sulci
  4. Reelin Defect
    • Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein important for termination of migration Cajal-Retzius cells, secrete Reelin, which accumulates just below the pial surface.
    • Early born neurons won't get off the track blocking later more cortical neurons. Createing Inverted corical lamination and lissencephally
  5. Cortical Development
    • Ventricular zone to cortex
    • Climbing up strands of radial glial cells
    • Ependymal (neuro stem cells) to Pia surface (differentiated neurons)
    • Stages
    • 1. Neurogenesis
    • 2. Migration
    • 3. Arborization (extension of dendrites and axons)
    • 4. Myelination (of axons) 5. Synapse formation and elimination
  6. 6 layed neo cortex
    • 1. Molecular layer
    • 2/3. Supragranular layer -Pyrimidal (glutametergic corticocortical connection only but both associational and commisural)
    • 4.Granular (mostly in primary sesory areas, not in primary motor)
    • 5. Infragranular - Large pyrimidal and amorphic (both corticocortical and cortifugal)
  7. Nerve regeneration
    • CNS cannot
    • PNS only with help of Schwann cells providing guidence
  8. MRI Weights
    • T1 weighted = grey looks grey and white matter looks white
    • T2 weighted = Grey looks white and white matter looks dark
  9. Subdural hematoma
    • Crescent shaped - maintains the countured shape of brain
    • Opens up potential space between Dura mattar and arachnoid matter
    • vein at attachment to sinuses
    • Dural venous sinus
  10. Epidura hematoma
    • Football shapped hematoma - indents into the brain rather than countours it
    • Above dura
    • Meningeal Artery
    • Dura venous sinous
  11. Tentorial (Uncle) Herniation
    • Uncus of medial temporal lobe herniates through the tentorial notch. Into the cerebellum space.
    • Extra stuff presses on the midbrain against the other edge of the tentorial notch
    • Cerebral peduncle deficient
    • PCA (occipital lobe hypoperfusion)
    • CN III gaze palsy
    • Coma
  12. Tonsilar Herniation
    • Cerebellum herniation through foramen magnum
    • Cerebellar mass causing one tonsil to herniate and pressing on the brain stem below (medulla compression)
    • Rapidly fatal as Medulla contains cardio and respiratory centers.
  13. Facial Colliculus
    • at level of mid pons and cuts through facial nucleus and abducens nucleus
    • Facial colliculus is produced as facial nerves wrap around the abducent nerve producing a bulg in the 4th ventricle
  14. Abducens nerve
    • Innervates lateral rectus muscle
    • comes out at the front of the ponto medulla junction just medial to the facial nerve
    • This is the most medial nerve at the pons/medulla junction and easily damaged due to long intracranial course
    • Functions in vestibulo-occula and conjugate gaze reflexes--> yolks CNIII to adduct towards side of head turning through the Medial Longitudenal Fasiculus
    • Recieves information paramedian pontine reticular formation (which recieves info from cortex, vestibular nuclei and superior colliculus)
  15. Olfactory Nerve
    • Primary olfactory --> glomeruli via Mitral Cells
    • Glomeruli --> olfactory track
    • taste receptor--> 1st order sensory neuron--> solatary nucleus (2nd order neuron)--> VPM (3rd order)--> insula and frontal cortex
  16. Anterior commissure
    • Just below the fornix a strip of white matter that mirrors the function of the corpus colusom but much smaller
    • connects the temporal lobes, the amagdala, and recieves info from olfactory
  17. Taste Nerves
    • receptors --> CN VII, CN IX, CN X--> solitary nucleus --> VPM--> insula
    • Or solitary nucleus --> hypothalamus/Amygdala
  18. Filiform Papillae
    • all over tongue, no taste buds, like sand paper
    • karetinized epithelium
  19. Fungiform Papillae
    • All over anterior part of tongue
    • Taste nerve
  20. Circumvallate (vallate) Papillea
    • Posterior part of the tongue
    • Large circles at the base of the tongue for taste
  21. Folate Papillae
    • on the side of the tongue
    • Rudimentary
  22. Sleep stages
    • Awake --> alpha/beta waves
    • N1 (drowsiness)--> theta wave--> hypnic jerk and hypnagogic hallucinations
    • N2 (light sleep)--> sleep spindles and K complexes --> decreased muscular activity and accounts for 45-55% of sleep
    • N3(deep slow wave sleep) --> delta waves --> night terrors, bed wetting, sleep walking and talking
    • REM --> beta waves --> rapid eye movement and low voltage EEG, muscular atonia( complex relaxation) and vivid dreams 20-25% in adults
  23. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
    • Part of the hypothalamus that works with pineal gland to regulat circadian rythem
    • Takes information from retina and raphe nuclei
    • Efferent to pineal gland
  24. Raphe Nuclei (sleep)
    • Reticular nuclei at multiple locations that secret seratonin
    • in respect to sleep it fires before and after REM to terminate the episode
    • Normally present during awake
  25. REM terminators
    • Serotonin --> raphe nuclei
    • Norepi --> Locus ceruleus
    • Orexin --> lateral hypothalamus (dorsal medial nucleus)
  26. Narcolepsy
    • Can be caused by the absence of orexin
    • Intrusion of REM sleep during periods of wakefullness
    • sleepy during the day
  27. REM initiator
    GABA --> preoptic area
  28. Pineal gland activation route
    Retina (light)--> suprachiasmatic nucleus (hypothalamus) --> reticular formation in ventrolateral medula--> intermediolateral neurons of spinal chord--> superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic control) --> pineal gland
  29. Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
    • Neurohypothesis
    • Release ADH and oxytocin
  30. Arcuate nucleus
    • DOPA-nergic neurons controls prolactin relase from antierior pituitary
    • GHRH and possibbly other pituitary control hypothalimus releasing hormones
  31. Preoptic
    • Sleep initiation with GABA secretion
    • sexual dimorphic nucleus--> GnRH secretion
  32. Suprachiasmatic
    • Sleep cycle and circadian rythm
    • Pineal gland activation