Geo exam 3

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Geo exam 3
2012-04-11 22:02:01

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  1. erupt when hot, fluid magmas fill up a volcanos plumbing system and overflow
    balsaltic lavas
  2. broad, shield shaped volcanoe, 2 or more kilometers high
    shield volcano
  3. bulbous, steep sided, mass of rock
    volcanic domes
  4. concave shaped, composite volcano
  5. bowl shaped pit
  6. large, steep walled, basin shaped depression much larger than a crater
  7. most dangerous, wet volcanic debris
  8. causes changes in the surface enviornment.
    Temperatures rise in day, fall in night.
    Rise in summer, Fall in winter
    Solar forcing
  9. troposphere and stratosphere make up
  10. troposphere
    layer closest to earths surface
  11. stratosphere
    dryer layer, above troposphere
  12. hydrosphere
    all liquid water on, over, and under earths surface
  13. cryosphere
    ice component od climate system
  14. lithosphere
    its most important part is land surface
  15. all organisms living on and beneath earths surface
  16. green house gases
    water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone, absorb energy - both coming directly from the sun and radiated by earths surface
  17. greenhouse effect
    trapping of heat, increases temperature at surface relative to temperature higher in atmosphere
  18. change in one component is ENHANCED by the changes it makes in other components
    tends to amplify
    postive feedback
  19. change in one component is REDUCED by changes it induces in other components
    tend to stabalize
    Negative feedback
  20. components of climate system
    • atmosphere
    • hydrosphere
    • cryosphere
    • lithosphere
    • biosphere
  21. lightning produces
  22. atmosphere
    • most mobile and rapidly changing part of climate system. It layered and alsoa mixture of gases.
    • nitrogen (78%)
    • oxygen 21%
    • srgon, carbon dioxide, miner gases (1%)
  23. Periodic Variations in earths movement around the sun, named after Serbian geophysicist
    Milankovitch Cycles
  24. Deccentricity (100,000years)
    Degree of ellipicity of Earths orbit around sun
  25. Tilt(41,000 years)
    Angle of tilt of Earths axis of rotation changes periodically
  26. Precession (23,000 years)
    Earths axis of rotation wobbles like a top, giving rise to a pattern of variation
  27. Air Sea gas Exchange
    • Exchange od CO2 directly across the interface between the oceans and the atmosphere amounts to an average carbon flux of 90 Gt a year
    • Sensitive to wind velocity
  28. Photosynthesis
    • Subcycle with greatest carbon flux 120 Gt per year
    • Exchange of CO2 between terrestial biosphere and the aatmosphere by photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition
  29. small fraction of CO2 incorporated into plant tissues is dissolved in surface waters
    Dissolved organic carbon
  30. Weathering of carbonate rock removes about 0.2 Gt of carbon per year from the lithosphere and an equal amount from the atmosphere
    Weathering of carbonates and silicates
  31. Controls on weathering
    • properties of parent rock
    • The climate
    • Absence or Presence of soil
    • length of exposure
  32. properties of parent rock
    mineral solubility in water- Low(quartz), moderate(pyroxene, feldspar), High(calcite)

    Rock structure- Massive, Zones of weakness, Very fractured/lightly bedded
  33. Presence/Absence of soil
    Thickness of soil layer- none/bare rock, thin, thick
  34. Length of exposure
    • Short
    • moderate
    • long
  35. chemical weathering
    • occurs when minerals react with air and water
    • Some minerals dissolve
  36. Physical weathering process in which large flat or curved sheets of rock are detached from an outcrop
  37. Mass movements
    • Downslope movements of masses of soil, rock, mud, or other materials under the force of gravity
    • Occur when the force of gravity exceed the strength of the slope materials
  38. Factors that influence mass movements
    • Nature of slope- unconsoldated, consolidated
    • Amount of water
    • steepness of slope
  39. Unconsolidated materials
    loose and uncemented
  40. consolidated materials
    compacted or bound together by mineral cements
  41. talus
    broken rocks