Andy Bio 5

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Andy Bio 5
2012-04-11 23:28:23
Andy Bio

Andy Bio 5
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  1. Mesoderm (which present/not present in...?)
    • musculoskeletal system, circulatory and excretory system, gonads, connective tissue, parts of digestive and respiratory organs.
    • -not present in Cnidarians, porifera
    • -Is present in platyhelmonths, nematoda, annelida
  2. Endoderm
    epithelial linings of respiratory and digestive tracts; parts of liver, pancreas, thyroid, bladder lining
  3. Secretin
    • released by small intestine when acidic food enters.
    • Stimulates: secretion of an alkaline bicarbonate solution from pancreas to neutralize the acidic chyme.
  4. Spongy Bone
    • much less dense than compact bone
    • interconnecting lattice of bony "spicules" (trabeculae)
    • cavities between spicules filled with yellow and or red bone marrow
  5. Prokaryotic Chromosome
    • are haploid
    • because of this meiosis does not occur
  6. Osteoblasts
    • Synthesizes and secrets organic constituents of the bone matrix
    • once surrounded by their matrix they mature into osteocytes
  7. Total ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation
    • 4
    • 2 by glycolysis
    • 1 per turn of TCA cycle
  8. Invertabrate Locomotion
    • Hydrostatic skeletons
    • Muscles in flatworms (ie planaria) are arranged in 2 antagonistic layers---longitudinal and circular
    • Muscles contract against incompressible fluid termed hydrostatic skeleton!
    • Contraction of circular layer--lenthens animal
    • contraction of longitudinal layer---shortens animal
  9. Community
    populations of different living plants and animals interacting
  10. Fovea
    • area of retina densely packed with cones
    • imp for high acuity vision
  11. Humus
    decomposing organic material found in soil
  12. Commensalism
    one organism benefits/other is not affected
  13. Clusters of neuronal bodies
    • PNS---ganglia
    • CNA---nuclei
    • a network of nerve fibers is a Plexus
  14. Vitreous Humor
    jelly like material filling eye helps maintain shape of eye
  15. Direct hormones
    (of anterior pituitary)
    • directly stimulate target organs
    • ---GH (somatotropin)
    • prolactin
  16. Gastrulation
    once implanted in the uterus the single cell layer of the blastula is transferred into the 3 layered gastrula
  17. Denitrifying Bacteria
    turn ammonia (NH3) to N2
  18. I Band
    area near the edge of the sarcomere where are only thin actin filament
  19. Adrenal cortex
    • in response to stress (ACTH...produced by A.P.) stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesizes and secrete cortico steroids. These include
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Mineral corticoids
    • Cortical sex hormones
  20. Oxidative Deamination
    removal of ammonia (toxic) from aa's
  21. Excretion in annelids
    • CO2 occurs directly through moist skin
    • two pairs of nephridia in each segment excrete water, mineral salts, and nitrogenous wastes in form of urea
  22. Net Reaction for glycolysis
    Glucose + 2 ADP +2 Pi +2 NAD+ + 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2H + 2H2O
  23. Diagram of a sarcomere
  24. How do gametophytes and sporophytes reproduce?
    • G---sexually (produces gametes by Mitosis)
    • S----asexually (spores which grow into gametophytes)
  25. Nitrogen fixing bacteria
    turn N2 into NO-3 (nitrates) which absorbed by plants.