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Mesoderm (which present/not present in...?)
- musculoskeletal system, circulatory and excretory system, gonads, connective tissue, parts of digestive and respiratory organs.
- -not present in Cnidarians, porifera
- -Is present in platyhelmonths, nematoda, annelida
epithelial linings of respiratory and digestive tracts; parts of liver, pancreas, thyroid, bladder lining
- released by small intestine when acidic food enters.
- Stimulates: secretion of an alkaline bicarbonate solution from pancreas to neutralize the acidic chyme.
- much less dense than compact bone
- interconnecting lattice of bony "spicules" (trabeculae)
- cavities between spicules filled with yellow and or red bone marrow
- are haploid
- because of this meiosis does not occur
- Synthesizes and secrets organic constituents of the bone matrix
- once surrounded by their matrix they mature into osteocytes
Total ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation
- 2 by glycolysis
- 1 per turn of TCA cycle
- Hydrostatic skeletons
- Muscles in flatworms (ie planaria) are arranged in 2 antagonistic layers---longitudinal and circular
- Muscles contract against incompressible fluid termed hydrostatic skeleton!
- Contraction of circular layer--lenthens animal
- contraction of longitudinal layer---shortens animal
populations of different living plants and animals interacting
- area of retina densely packed with cones
- imp for high acuity vision
decomposing organic material found in soil
one organism benefits/other is not affected
Clusters of neuronal bodies
- a network of nerve fibers is a Plexus
jelly like material filling eye helps maintain shape of eye
(of anterior pituitary)
- directly stimulate target organs
- ---GH (somatotropin)
once implanted in the uterus the single cell layer of the blastula is transferred into the 3 layered gastrula
turn ammonia (NH3) to N2
area near the edge of the sarcomere where are only thin actin filament
- in response to stress (ACTH...produced by A.P.) stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesizes and secrete cortico steroids. These include
- Mineral corticoids
- Cortical sex hormones
removal of ammonia (toxic) from aa's
Excretion in annelids
- CO2 occurs directly through moist skin
- two pairs of nephridia in each segment excrete water, mineral salts, and nitrogenous wastes in form of urea
Net Reaction for glycolysis
Glucose + 2 ADP +2 Pi +2 NAD+ + 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2H + 2H2O
How do gametophytes and sporophytes reproduce?
- G---sexually (produces gametes by Mitosis)
- S----asexually (spores which grow into gametophytes)
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
turn N2 into NO-3 (nitrates) which absorbed by plants.