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    • author "me"
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    • description "Change 7-8"
    • fileName "PSYCHOLOGY "
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    • A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
    • Learning
  1. A type of learning in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate events. ( A flash of lightning signals an impending thunder.)
    Classical conditioning
  2. One learns to associate a response (our behavior) and it's consequence, and thus to repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results
    Operant conditioning
  3. Learning new behaviors by observing others
    Observational learning
  4. Pioneers of classical conditioning
    Ivan pavlov and watson
  5. Pioneer of operant conditioning
    B. F. Skinner
  6. Pioneer of observational learning
  7. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response
    Unconditioned stimulus
  8. The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salavation when food is in the mouth
    Unconditioned response
  9. A stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
    (The bell in Pavlov's study)
    Neutral stimulus
  10. A previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
    Conditioned stimulus
  11. A learned response to a previously neutral( but now conditioned) stimulus
    Conditioned response
  12. The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditional stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer enforced
  13. The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  14. The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
    Spontaneous recovery
  15. An 11 month old baby feared loud noises but not a white rat. When presented with the rat, he reached to touch the rat. At the same time, the researcher would make a loud noise behind the baby's head. After 7 repeats, he burst into tears at the mere site of a rat. 5 days later, he generalized this fear with other white objects.
    Little albert
  16. Behavior is shaped by good or bad responses, even if not done intentionally. What is this theory?
    Behavior is shaped by its consequences
  17. Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by a favorable consequences become more likely
    Law of effect
  18. An operant conditioning procedure in which re- enforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
  19. Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food
    Positive reinforcement
  20. Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli (not to be confused with punishment)
    Negative reinforcement
  21. An event that decreases the behavior it follows
  22. An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
    Primary reinforcement
  23. A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through it association with a primary reinforcer
    Secondary (conditioned) reinforcement
  24. A chamber containing a bar or a key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
    Skinner box (operant chamber)
  25. What was skinners controversial philosophy?
    He repeatedly insisted that external influences shape behavior. Critics objected, saying he dehumanized people buying the neglecting their personal freedom by seeking to control their actions.
  26. A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
    Fixed ratio schedule
  27. A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
    Variable ratio schedule
  28. A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
    Fixed interval schedule
  29. Reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
    Variable interval schedule
  30. A mental representation of the layout of ones environment ( after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have a learned a mental map of it.)
    Cognitive map
  31. The persistence of learning overtime through the storage and retrieval of information
  32. The processing of information into the memory system
  33. Retention of encoded information overtime
  34. Process of getting information out of memory storage
  35. The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in memory system
    Sensory memory
  36. A newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, and of info retrieved from long term memory
    Working memory
  37. Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the 7 digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotton
    Short term memory
  38. The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skill, and experiences. ( Limitless capacity and duration)
    Long term memory
  39. Unconscious encoding of incidental information; times, space, and frequency, and of well learned information such a word meaning
    Automatic processing
  40. Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort (studying new chapters)
    Effortful processing
  41. The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
    Spacing effect
  42. The course of forgetting is intentionally rapid, then levels off with time
    Forgetting curve
  43. Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
    Serial position
  44. Organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically
  45. A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image of memory lasting no more than a few 10th of a second
    Iconic memory
  46. A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 to 4 seconds
    Echoic memory
  47. Hey clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
    Flashbulb memory
  48. The loss of memory
  49. Memory aids, especially those techniques that uses vivid imagery and organizational devices
  50. Retention independent of conscious recollection
    Implicit memory
  51. Memory of fact and experiences that 1 can consciously know and "declare"
    Explicit memory
  52. That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
    Deja vu
  53. the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood
    Mood congruence memory
  54. What we learn in one state, be at drunk or sober, may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state
    State dependent memory
  55. Why do we forget?
    • 1. Encoding failure- failing to encode information; associated with older adults
    • 2. Storage decay- possibly gradual fading of the physical memory trace. (Discarded memories)
    • 3. Retrieval failure - inability to retrieve long term memories
    • 4. Proactive interference-the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information (new phone number)
    • 5. Retroactive interference- the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information (passwords)
  56. Forgetting certain aspects of memories ( leaving out a part of a memory that makes you look bad)
    Motivated forgetting
Card Set
ch 7-8
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