OPMT Chapt. 14, 15, & 16

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OPMT Chapt. 14, 15, & 16
2012-04-30 01:25:05

OPMT Chapt. 14, 15, & 16
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  1. scheduling
    establishing the timing of the use of equipment, facilities, and human activities in an organization; if done effectively it can yield cost savings & increases in productivity; objective= minimize customer waiting time, inventories, & process times
  2. flow systems
    high-volume systems (for personal computers, tvs, toys, appliances, mining, cafeteria lines) in which jobs all follow the same sequence
  3. flow-shop or system scheduling
    scheduling for flow systems; goal= to achieve a smooth rate of flow of goods or customers through the system in order to get high utilization of labor & equipment
  4. intermediate-volume systems
    output falls between the standardized type of output of high-volume systems & the make-to-order output of job shops; intermittent production, not continuous; work centers periodically shift from one product to another; run (batch) sizes=relatively lare; products= canned foods, baked goods, paint, & cosmetics
  5. job-shop scheduling
    scheduling for low-volume systems with many variations in requirements; products are made to order; orders usually differ in terms of processing requirements, materials needed, processing time, & processing sequence and setups; complex scheduling environment b/c impossible to do so before actual job orders received
  6. loading
    the assignment of jobs to processing (work) centers; specific jobs to work centers & various machines in the work centers; seek arrangements that will minimize processing & setup costs, idle time among work centers, or job completion time
  7. gantt charts
    used a visual aid for loading & scheduling purposes; purpose= to organize & visually display the actual or intended use of resources in a time framework; managers may use for trial-and-error schedule development to get an idea of what different arrangements would involve
  8. load chart
    a Gantt chart that shows the loading and idle times for a group of machines or list of departments;
  9. sequencing
    determining the order in which jobs at a work center will be processed
  10. priority rules
    simple heuristics used to select the order in which jobs will be processed
  11. job time
    time needed for setup and processing of a job
  12. FCFC
    first come first serve; jobs are processed in the order in which they arrive at a machine or work center
  13. SPT
    shortest processing time; jobs are processed according to processing time at a machine or work center, shortest first
  14. EDD
    earliest due date; jobs are processed according to due date, earliest first
  15. CR
    critical ratio; jobs are processed according to smallest ratio of time remaining until due date to processing time remaining; lowest ratio goes 1st; negative= late

    • due date - current date
    • processing time
  16. job flow time
    the amount of time from when a job arrives until it is finished; the length of time a job is at a particular workstation or work center; includes processing time AND any time waiting to be processed
  17. job lateness (tardiness)
    the difference between the actual completion date & the due date; the length of time the job completion time is expected to exceed the job due date or the date promised to a customer
  18. makespan
    the total time needed to complete a group of jobs, from the beginning of the first job in the group to the completion of the last job in the group; sum of all the flow times
  19. schedule chart
    a Gantt chart that shows the orders or jobs in progress and whether they are on schedule; needs to be repeatedly updated to keep it current; doesn't directly reveal costs associated with alternative loadings
  20. infinite loading
    jobs are assigned to work centers without regard to the capacity of the work center
  21. finite loading
    jobs are assigned to work centers taking into account the work center capacity and job processing times; capacity is not exceeded; may have to be updated often
  22. forward scheduling
    scheduling ahead from a point in time; used when the question is: how long will it take to complete the job; enables scheduler to determine the earliest possible completion time for each job & the amount of lateness or slack
  23. backward scheduling
    scheduling backward from the due date; used when the question is: when is the latest this job can be started and still be completed on time
  24. local priority rules
    focus on information pertaining to a single workstation when establishing a job sequence
  25. global priority rules
    incorporate information from multiple workstations when establishing a job sequence; require more effort
  26. Johnson's rule
    technique for minimizing makespan (completion time) for a group of jobs to be processed on 2 machines or at 2 work centers; minimizes idle time at work centers
  27. lean operation
    a flexible system that uses minimal resources (activities, people, inventory, floor space) & produces high-quality goods or services; tends to achieve greater productivity, lower costs, shorter cycle times, & higher quality; 3 elements= demand driven, focused on waste reduction from every aspect of the process, & has a culture dedicated to excellence & continuous improvement
  28. just-in-time (JIT)
    a high coordinated processing system in which goods move through the system, & services are performed, just as they are needed; sometimes lean systems are referred to as this
  29. pull system
    a workstation pulls output from the preceding station as it is needed; replacing material or parts based on demand; produce only what is needed; require fairly steady flow of repitive work; not good for large variations in volume, product mix, or product design
  30. inventory, overproduction, waiting time, unnecessary transporting, processing waste, inefficient work methods, & product defects
    the 7 sources of waste
  31. Kanban
    a manual system that signals the need for parts or materials; result= delivery of a steady stream of a small supply of parts throughout the workday to the factory & each workstation
  32. single-minute exchange of die (SMED)
    a system for reducing changeover time; setup tools & equipment & setup procedures must be simple & standardized; multi-purpose equipment or attachments can help reduce setup time
  33. autonomation (jidoka)
    automatic detection of defects during production, sometimes used to minimize them; then human stops production to correct the cause of the defects
  34. takt time
    the cycle time needed in a production system to match the pace of production to the customer demand rate for the final product; sometimes referred to as the heartbeat of a lean production system; often set for a work shift; can be used to determine the time that should be allotted to each workstation in the production process
  35. poka-yoke (mistake proofing or fail safing)
    safeguards built into a process to reduce the possibility of errors; ex= an alarm that sounds to indicate when packages are missing components & designing parts that can only be attached in the correct position
  36. activity-based costing (ABC)
    allocation of overhead to specific jobs based on their percentage of activities; designed to more closely reflect the actual amount of overhead consumed by a particular job or activity
  37. push system
    work is pushed to the next station as it is completed; used in traditional production environments; has no regard for the next station's readiness for the work= work may pile up at workstations that fall behind schedule
  38. Kanban
    card or other device that communicates demand for work or materials from the preceding station; Japanese for signal or visible record; authorization to move or work on parts; can also be a signal to produce or deliver parts; major benefit= its simplicity; goals= to improve customer service, reduce inventories, & increase productivity
  39. preventive maintenance
    maintaing equipment in good operating condition & replacing parts that have a tendency to fail before they actually do fail; maintain supplies of critical spare parts for emergency situations, maintain a small force of repair ppl, or train workers to do certain repairs themselves
  40. value stream mapping
    a visual tool to systematically examine the flow of materials & info. involved in bringing a product or service to a consumer; provides an overview of the activities that comprise a process; identifies waste & opportunities for improvement; can lead to uncovering factors related to poor quality & mgmt problems
  41. supply chain (a.k.a. value chains)
    a sequence of orgs-their facilities (warehouses, factories, retail outlets, distribution centers, offices), functions, & activities- that are involved in producing & delivering a product or service; begins w/ basic suppliers of raw materials & extends all the way to the final customer; F&A= purchasing, inventory mgmt, info. mgmt, quality assurance, scheduling, customer service
  42. supply chain management
    the strategic coordination of business functions within a business organization and throughout its supply chain for the purpose of integrating supply & demand management
  43. logistics
    the part of a supply chain involved with the forward and reverse flow of goods, materials, services, cash, and information; mgmt of this includes mgmt of inbound & outbound transportation, material handling, warehousing, inventory, order fulfillment, & the return of goods from customers
  44. e-business (e-commerce)
    the use of electronic technology to facilitate business transactions; applications include internet buying & selling, e-mail, order & shipment tracking, product & service promotion, & providing info. about them
  45. vendor analysis
    evaluating the sources of supply in terms of price, quality, reputation, & service; also flexibility, location, financial stability, & on-time delivery are factors that could be included
  46. strategic partnering
    2 or more business organizations that have complementary products or services that would strategically benefit the others agree to join so that each may realize a strategic benefit
  47. inventory velocity
    the speed at which goods move through a supply chain; the greater this is, the lower the inventory holding costs & the faster orders are filled & goods turned into cash
  48. bullwhip effect
    inventory oscillations (fluctuations can be caused by periodic ordering, reactions to shortages, forecast, inaccuracies, order batching, sales incentives & promotions) become progressively larger looking backward through the supply chain; cause ripple= higher costs & lower customer satisfaction
  49. traffic management
    overseeing the shipment of incoming and outgoing goods; handles schedules & decisions on shipping method & times, taking into account costs of various shipping alternatives, gov't regulations, the needs of org. relative to quantities & timing, & potential shipping delays or disruptions
  50. Third Party Logistics (3PLs)
    the outsourcing of logistics management; companies are turning over warehousing & distribution to companies that specialize in these areas
  51. strategic sourcing
    a systematic process for analyzing the purchase of products and services to reduce costs by reducing waste & non-value-added activities, increase profits, reduce risks, & improve supplier performance
  52. information velocity
    the speed at which information is communicated in a supply chain; the faster it flows two-way, the better
  53. event management
    the ability to detect & respond to unplanned events such as delayed shipment or a warehouse running low on a certain item
  54. cross-docking
    a technique whereby good arriving at a warehouse from a supplier are unloaded from the supplier's truck and immediately loaded onto outbound trucks, thereby avoiding warehouse storage
  55. disintermediation
    reducing one or more steps in a supply chain by cutting out one or more intermediaries