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When reviewing actions of drugs, the nurse recognizes that a hypnotic is a drug that performs what action?
A pt who has been taking a benzodiazepine for 5 Wis has been instructed to stop the medication. What instruction will the nurse provide the pt on how to discontinue the medication?
Plan a gradual reduction in dosage.
A pt will be undergoing a brief surgical procedure to obtain a bx from a superficial mass on his arm. The nurse expects what type of barbiturate will be used at this time?
While monitoring a pt who took an OD of barbiturates, the nurse keeps in mind that the cause of death would be what?
A pt with muscle spasms is being treated with a skeletal muscle relaxant. In order to ensure that these drugs are most effective, the nurse will make sure what other TX is ordered?
The nurse is providing care for a pt who has accidentally taken an OD of benzodiazepines. Which drug would be used to TX this pt?
The nurse is reviewing a pt's medication administration record. What best describes a common use for doxapram (Dopram)?
To treat respiratory insufficiency associated with COPD.
What are results of stimulation of the CNS?
Decreased drowsiness, increased respiration, euphoria
The Dr has ordered orlistat (Xenical). The nurse recognizes that this drug is used to treat what condition?
A pt has asked for a cup of coffee. The nurse keeps in mind that caffeine should be avoided by pt's who have a history of which condition?
- A) cardiac dysrhythmias
- B) asthma
- C) bradycardia
- D) Gallbladder disease
When a child is taking drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, what will the nurse instructed caregiver too closely monitor in the child?
- A) blood glucose levels
- B) physical growth?, especially weight
- C) grades in school
- D) respiratory rate
A patient with migraine headaches is being evaluated. 1 potential treatment is ergotamine tablets. The nurse notes that the patient has the following conditions. Which would be a contraindication to the use of ergotamine?
- A) asthma
- B) HTN
- C) pregnancy
- D) hypothyroidism
Status epilepticus is considered a life threatening medical_____?
A type of epilepsy with an unknown cause
A potential adverse effect of valproic acid
I be administered antiepileptic drugs should be delivered this way to avoid furious adverse effects
A type of epilepsy with a distinct cause
An involuntary spasmodic contraction of voluntary muscles throughout the body
This line of drugs is 1 of the first line drugs used to treat status epilepticus
Another term for primary epilepsy
A barbiturate used primarily to control tonic clonic and partial seizures
The metabolic process that occurs when the metabolism of a drug increases overtime, which leads to lower than expected drug concentration
Recurrent episodes of compulsive seizures
A first line antiepileptic drug, the long term use of which can cause gingival hyperplasia
A patient has been taking antiepileptic drugs for a year. The nurse is reviewing his recent history and will monitor for which condition that may develop at this time?
- A) loss of appetite
- B) jaundice
- C) weight loss
- D) suicidal thoughts or behavior
A pt is experiencing a seizure that has lasted for several minutes and he has not regained consciousness. The nurse recognizes that this is a life threatening emergency known as:
- A. Status epilepticus
- B. Tonic-clonic convulsion
- C. Epilepsy
- D. Secondary epilepsy
The nurse is giving an IV dose of phenytoin (Dilantin). Which guidelines will the nurse follow for administration? (Check all that apply)
- A. Phenytoin should be injected quickly
- B. Phenytoin should be injected slowly
- C. Phenytoin should be followed by an injection of sterile saline
- D. Continuous infusion should be avoided
Answer B, C, D
The nurse is administering phenobarbital (Luminal) and will monitor the pt for which possible adverse effect?
- A. Constipation
- B. Gingival hyperplasia
- C. Drowsiness
- D. Dysrhythmias
A patient who is experiencing neuropathic pain tells the nurse that the physician is going to start him on a new medication that is generally used to treat seizures. The nurse anticipates that which drug will be ordered?
- A. phenobarbital (Luminal)
- B. phenytoin (Dilantin)
- C. gabapentin (Neurontin)
- D. tiagabine (Gabitril)
A patient with parkinson's disease has difficulty performing voluntary movements. What is the correct term for this symptom?
- A. Akinesia
- B. Dyskinesia
- C. Chorea
- D. Dystonia w
Which drug maybe used early in the treatment of parkinson's disease but eventually loses its effectiveness and must be replaced by another drug?
- A. amantidine (Symmetrel)
- B. levodopa (Larodopa)
- C. selegiline (Eldepryl)
- D. telcapone (Tasmar)
A nurse is reviewing an order for apomorphine (Apokyn). What is the most important guideline when administering this drug?
- A. Observe the patient for severe diarrhea that may occur
- B. Prepare the patient for problems with insomnia
- C. The drug should be perscribed in milliliters, not milligrams
- D. It is given in extended-dose, PO forms only
A patient who is newly diagnosed with parkinson's disease and is beginning medication therapy with entacapone (Comtan), a COMT inhibitor, asks the nurse, "How soon will I improve?" What is the nurse's best response?
- A. "That varies from patient to patient."
- B. " You should discuss that with your position."
- C. " You should notice a difference right away."
- D. " It may take several weeks before you notice any degree of improvement."
A patient ask a nurse why a second drug is given with his drugs for parkinson's disease. The nurse notes that this drug, an anticholinergic, is given to control or minimize which symptoms? (Check all that apply)
- A. Drooling
- B. Constipation
- C. Muscle rigidity
- D. Bradykinesia
- E. Dry mouth
Answer A, C
The nurse is providing teaching on COMT inhibitors to a pt with a new prescription. The nurse will be sure to educate the patient on the possibility of which adverse effect?
- A. Dizziness
- B. Urine discoloration
- C. Leg edema
- D. Visual changes
The nurse is administering the antipsychotic drug clozapine (Clozaril) and should monitor the pt for what long-term problem associated with this drug? (Check all that apply)
- A. Mood swings
- B. Agranulocytosis
- C. Weight gain
- D. Anorexia
- E. Increased appetite
Answers B, C, E
During therapy for depression with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, it is most important for the nurse to instruct the family to monitor for which adverse effect?
- A. Suicidal thoughts
- B. Visual disturbances
- C. Tardive dyskenesia
- D. Bleeding tendencies
The wife of a patient who has started taking antidepressant therapy asks, "How long will it take for him to feel better?" What is the nurse's best response?
- A. "Well, depression rarely responds to medication therapy."
- B. " He should feel better in a few days."
- C. " It may take 4 to 6 weeks before you see an improvement."
- D. " You may not see any affects for several months."
When and ministering certain antipsychotic drugs, the nurse monitors for extrapyramidal effects such as: (check all that apply)
- A. Tremors
- B. Elation and a sense of well being
- C. Painful muscle spasms
- D. Motor restlessness
- E. Bradycardia
Answers A, C, D
The nurse instructed patient was undergoing therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) To avoid tyramine containing foods. What medical emergency may occur if the patient eats these foods while taking MAOIs?
- A. Gastric hemorrhage
- B. Toxic shock
- C. Cardiac arrest
- D. Severe hypertensive crisis
The unpleasant state of mind in which real or imagined dangers are anticipated and/or exaggerated
A state characterized by inexpansive emotional state (including symptoms of extreme excitement elation) and hyperactivity
A group of psychotropic drugs prescribed to alleviate anxiety
Emotional disorder characterized by changes in mood
A major psychologic disorder characterized by episodes of mania or hypomania, cycling with depression
Bipolar affective disorder
Patients taking MAOIs need to be taught to avoid foods that contain this substance
An older class of antidepressant drugs
And abnormal emotional state characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, melancholy, and worthlessness out of proportion to reality
A frequently prescribed benzodiazepine
The most widely used tricyclic antidepressant
And a typical antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia
A non -benzodiazepine drug used to TX anxiety
Used to treat mania
A type of serious mental illness that can take several different forms and is associated with being truly out of touch with reality
What is another name for an adrenergic drug?
- A. Anticholinergic drug
- B. Parasympathetic drug
- C. Central nervous system
- D. Sympathomimetic drug
The nurses administering in adrenergic drug and will monitor for which possible effect?
- A. Urinary retention
- B. Hypotension
- C. Decreased respiratory rate
- D. Increased heart rate
The nurse is aware that adrenergic drugs may be used to TX which conditions? (Check all that apply)
- A. Asthma
- B. Glaucoma
- C. Hypertension
- D. Nasal congestion
- E. Seizures
- F. Nausea and vomiting
Answers A, B, D
A 13 year old girl was diagnosed with asthma 2 years ago. Today her physician wants to start her on salmeterol (Serevent) administered by a inhaler. The nurse needs to remember to include which statement when teaching the girl and her family about this drug?
- A. " It should be taken at the first sign of an asthma attack."
- B. " The dosage is 2 puffs every 4 hours or anytime needed for asthma attacks."
- C. " This inhaler is for prevention of asthma attacks, not for an acute attack."
- D. " B sure to take your steroid inhaler first."
Adrenergic blockade at the alpha-adrenergic -receptors leads to which of the following effects ?
- A. Vasodilation
- B. Decreased blood pressure
- C. Increased blood pressure
- D. Constriction of the pupil
- E. Tachycardia
Answers A, B, D
The nurse discovered that the intravenous infusion of a patient who has been receiving an intravenous vasopressor has infiltrated. The nurse will expect which drug to be used to reverse the effects of the vasopressor in the infiltrated area?
- A. phentolamine
- B. prazosin (Minipress)
- C. ergotamine
- D. metoprolol (Lopressor)
A patient has a new prescription for a beta blocker as part of treatment for hypertension. The nurse is reviewing the patient's current medications and notes that there may be a concern regarding interactions with which medication?
- A. Thyroid hormone supplement
- B. Antibiotic for a sinus infection
- C. Oral hypoglycemic for type 2 diabetes mellitus
- D. Oral contraceptives
A patient has been given an alpha blocker as treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Which instruction is important to include when the nurse is teaching him about the effects of this medication?
- A. Avoid foods and drinks that contain caffeine
- B. Change positions slowly to avoid orthostatic blood pressure changes
- C. Watch for weight loss of 2 pounds within a week
- D. Take extra supplements of calcium
A patient who has been taking a beta blocker for 6 months tell the nurse during a follow up visit that she wants to stop taking this medication. She is wondering if there is any problem with stopping the medication all at once. What is the nursees best response?
- A. " No, there are no ill effects if this medication is stopped."
- B. " There should be only minimal effects if you stop this medication."
- C. " You may experience orthostatic hypotension if you stop this medication abruptly."
- D. " If you stop this medication suddenly, there is a possibility you may experience chest pain or rebound hypertension."
Antidote for overdose of a cholinergic drug
Cholinergic drugs that act by making more acetylcholine (ACh) available at the receptor site, which is thus allows ACh to bind to and stimulate the receptor
Indirect acting cholinergic drugs
Cholinergic drugs that bind to cholinergic receptors and activate them
Direct acting cholinergic drugs
Receptors located in the ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system
Receptors located postsynaptically in the effector organs (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the glands) supplied by the parasympathetic fibers
A description of the action of the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)
"Rest and digest"
The neurotransmitter responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses to the effector cells in the PSNS
The enzyme responsible for breaking down ACh
The desired effects of cholinergic drugs come from stimulation of which receptors?
- A. Cholinergic
- B. Nicotinic
- C. Muscarinic
- D. Ganglionic
The undesirable effects of cholinergic drugs come from stimulation of which preceptors?
- A. Cholinergic
- B. Nicotinic
- C. Muscarinic
- D. Ganglionic
When a patient minch is bethanechol when asked about his medication history, the nurse recognizes that this drug is used for the treatment of which condition?
- A. Diarrhea
- B. Urinary retention
- C. Urinary incontinence
- D. Bladder spasms
When caring for a patient with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, the nurse can expect to see which drug ordered for the symptomatic treatment?
- A. bethanechol (Urecholine)
- B. tacrine (Cognex)
- C. donezepil (Aricept)
- D. physostigmine