Andy Bio 6

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thinkrussia
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147158
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Andy Bio 6
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2012-04-12 00:05:50
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Andy bio 6
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  1. Mollusca and it classes
    • Mollusca were rated PG B.C.
    • most are shelled and possess a radula (raspy tongue)
    • 4 of 7 classes
    • Polyplacophora: chitins
    • Gastropoda: snails, periwinkles, conchs, slugs
    • Bivaria: mussels scallops
    • Cephalopoda: most advanced of phylum. lack a shell. Highly developed NS and rapid locomotion (squids)
  2. Reproduction in Fungi
    • most fungi are haploid much of life cycle
    • when conditions are adequate--reproduce asexually
    • haploid spores in the sporangea of the sporangiophores are carried by air or water until find proper substrata
    • when adverse conditions---sexually
    • in zygomycota specialized hyphae from two mycelia of diff (+) and (-) types form a conjugated bridge. Each tip becames a gametangium (gamete producing cell) gametes fuse to form a zygote
  3. Fungilike protists
    • Myxomycota (eplasmodial slime molds)
    • highly pigmented anoboid cells
    • alternate between a multicellular aggregate and individual cells
    • Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds)
    • differ in that aggregations phase is multicellular not coenocytic
    • Oomycota (water molds, some rust mildews)
    • cell walls of cellulose (makes them diff. than true fungi)
    • have flagella
  4. Chlorophyta
    • very diverse
    • chlorophyll a and c and carotenoids
    • algal component of lichens
    • ie. chlamydomonas (complex sexual and asexual stages)
  5. Chrysophyta
    • chlorophylls a and c
    • Cell walls of hydrated silica
    • Includes:
    • Diatoms-most numerous, double shell
    • golden-brown algae
    • yellow-green algae
  6. Pterophyta
    • ferns
    • seedless
    • most numerous
  7. Ascomycota
    • aka Sac fungi
    • ie yeasts, some mildews, ergot, penicillium
    • reproductive sac called an ascus formed during the sexual cycle
  8. Zygomycota
    • produce asexual spores a tips of specialized hyphae (sporangiophores) that extend into the air
    • persistant zygospores that are formed when haploid gametes fuse under adverse conditions
    • under comfortable conditions---diploid zygospore undergoes meiosis and gives rise to a new haploid mycelium
  9. Solubiliity
    hydroxides
    • insoluble except
    • Alkali metals Ca 2+/Sr 2+/ Ba 2+
  10. Solubility
    metal oxides
    • insoluble except:
    • Alkali metals and Cao/SrO and BaO
  11. Light reactions
    oxidation of H2O to O2 coupled to reduction of NADP+
  12. Location of TCA cycle
    Mitochondrial matrix
  13. Pre-TCA
    • 2 pyruvates are decarboxylated and added to CoA
    • Produces:
    • 2 Acetyl CoA
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 CO2
  14. Net products for TCA cycle
    • 2 GTP
    • 6 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
    • 4 CO2
    • 2 CoA

    24 e- total
  15. TCA intermediate
    • CIKSSFMO
    • citrate
    • isocitrate
    • ketoglutamate
    • succmyl CoA
    • Fumenarte
    • Malente
    • Oxaloacetate
  16. Dark reactions
    • Fixations of CO2 using ATP and NADPH to make carbs
    • 18 ATP and 12 NADPH required for 6 cycles
  17. 3 Kingdoms (Old system)
    Monera, plantae, animalia
  18. Bony fish
    • most common fish
    • scales lack notochord in adult form
    • bony skeleton
  19. Renin
    • produced by kidneys when blood volume falls
    • is an enzyme that converts plasma protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin II which stimulates aldosterone release
  20. Cnidaria (classes and lifecycle)
    • Cnidaria has 3 Major classes
    • 1. Hydrozoa (hydras)
    • 2. Scyphozoa (jellyfish) medusa stage dominates
    • 3. Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones) lack medusa stage
    • Life cycle: most have a clear cut alternating polyp and medusa stages
  21. Nitrifying bacteria
    takes NH3 to nitrites (NO2) and then to nitrates (NO3-)
  22. B cell
    type of lymphocyte that develops to maturity in bone marrow. After encountering antigen B cells differentiate into anti-body secreting plasma cells; the effector cells of humoral immunity

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