Ch 41- animal nutrition .txt

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Ch 41- animal nutrition .txt
2012-04-12 00:08:20

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  1. Essential nutrients
    • Nutrients required by an animal
    • Include minerals and organic molecules that can't be produced by raw materials
    • 4 classes
    • Amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals
  2. Essential amino acids
    • 10
    • Must be obtained from food
  3. Essential fatty acids
    • Must be ingested
    • Ex, linoleic acid makes phospholipids in cell membrane
  4. Vitamins
    Organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
  5. Minerals
    Simple inorganic nutrients that are required in the diet in small amounts
  6. 4 main stages in food processing
    • Ingesting
    • Digesting
    • Absorption
    • Elimination
  7. Ingestion
    The act of taking in food
  8. Digestion
    • Breakdown of food into small molecules capable of being absorbed by the cells of the body.
    • Enzymatic hydrolysis, breaking of bonds with the addition of a water molecule, is reaction type by which macromolecules are digested
  9. Absorption
    Stage in food preceding when body's cells take up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive tract
  10. Elimination
    Passing of undigested material from the digestive tract
  11. Intracellular digestion
    • Within a cell enclosed by a protective membrane
    • Sponges
  12. Extracellular
    • Most animals
    • Food is broken down outside cells. Allows the animal to devour much larger sources of food
  13. Gastrovascular cavity
    • Single opening through which food enters and waste exits.
    • Cnidarians, flatworms
  14. Complete digestive tract (alimentary canals)
    One way digestive tubes that begin at the mouth and terminate at the anus
  15. Peristalsis
    • Rhythmic waves of contraction by smooth muscle in the walls of the alimentary canal
    • Controls movement of food throughout digestive system
  16. Sphincters
    Muscular, ring like valves that regulate the passage of material between digestive compartments
  17. Oral cavity
    • Mouth
    • Nervous reflex occurs that causes saliva, which lubricates the food to allow swallowing
    • Starts chemical digestion
  18. Amylase
    Enzyme in saliva which hydroxides starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and maltose
  19. Bolus
    Ball food is shaped into during chewing
  20. Pharynx
    • Where bolus enters during chewing.
    • Junction that opens to the esophagus and trachea
  21. Epiglottis
    • Flap made of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing.
    • Diverts food down esophagus, out of airway
  22. Esophagus
    Moves food from the pharynx down to the stomach through peristalsis
  23. Gastric juice
    • Digestive fluid
    • Hydrochloric acid- pH 2, breaks down ECM of meat and plant materials, kills most bacteria ingested
    • Pepsin- enzyme that begins to hydro lie proteins into smaller polypeptides.
    • Secreted in inactive form pepsinogen, activated by Hydrochloric acid. Inactive form protects cells that produce digestion enzyme from self digestion.
    • Thick mucus produced by lining of stomach
  24. Acid chyme
    • Results from digestion in stomach.
    • Shunted from stomach via pyloric sphincter
  25. Duodenum
    • First section of small intestine.
    • Major site of chemical digestion
    • Acid chyme mixes with secretions from pancreas and liver. Pancreas releases bicarbonate fluid
  26. Bicarbonate fluid
    • Produced by pancrease
    • Acts as buffer against acidic contended from stomach
  27. Bile
    • Meade in liver, stored in gall bladder
    • Coats fat droplets turning large fat droplets into small fat droplets, which are easier to diget
  28. Carbohydrates
    • Breakdown of starch and glycogen began with amylase.
    • Small intestine, pancreatic amylases break down starch, glycogen, etc into monomers at wall of duodenal epithelium
  29. Proteins
    • Pepsin begins breakdown
    • Trypsin and chymotrypson brk polypeptides into smaller chains
    • Dipeptodases break polypeptides into amino acids
  30. Nucleic acids
    • Starts with hydrolysis of DNA and RNA into nucleotides.
    • Nucleotides broken down into nitrogenous bases, sugars, and phosphate groups.
  31. Fats
    • Digests starts in small intestine
    • Bile coats fats, keeps them from clumping.
    • Lipase, produced in pacrease, hydrolyzes small fat droplets
  32. Villi
    Folds on epithelial lining of small intestine
  33. Microvilli
    • Projections of villi
    • Increase surface area available for absorption
  34. Lacteal
    Capillaries on villi for absorption. Absorb small fatty acids
  35. Hepatic portal vessel
    • Blood vessel that goes to liver, formed by capillaries and veins that drain nutrients away from villi.
    • Liver then regulates distribution of nutrients
  36. Gastrin
    • Produced by stomach
    • Increases production of gastric juices
  37. Enterogastrone
    • Produced by duodenum in presence of fats, slows peristalsis
    • Allows more time for fat digestion
  38. Secretin and CCK
    • Secreted by walls of duodenum
    • Increase flow of digestive juices from pancreas and gall bladder
  39. Large intestine (colon)
    • Connected to small intestine by a sphincter
    • Cecum- point of connection site. Small pouch with extension called appendix
  40. Large intestine functions
    • Compact waste
    • recover water
  41. Rectum
    • At end of colon
    • Where feces is stored until it is eliminated
  42. Dentition
    • Correlated with diet.
    • Mammals have specialized that best enables them to ingest food