Unit 6 (Informatics and QC)

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nenyabrooke
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Unit 6 (Informatics and QC)
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2012-04-29 17:06:53
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Digital Imaging
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Unit 6: Chapter 9 (informatics) and Chapter 10 (QC)
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  1. the term ____________ originated from the term "information".
    informatics
  2. ____________ refers to useful, meaningful, and organized data.
    information
  3. ______________________ allows for digital devices to communicate textual and image information.
    information technology (IT)
  4. who described information technology (IT) as any technology assisting in the communication of information, and when?
    • Williams
    • 2007
  5. information technology (IT) is any technology that assists in the communication of information by (5):
    • producing
    • manipulating
    • storing
    • communicating
    • disseminating
  6. two devices used to convert raw data into information that can be used to solve problems:
    • hardware
    • software
  7. the physical components used to process data:
    hardware
  8. give some examples of hardware:
    • keyboard
    • mouse
    • CPU
    • memory chips (RAM)
    • storage devices (magnetic disks, tapes, optical disks, monitor printers)
  9. the computer programs (algorithms) that direct all hardware components to solve problems and derive practical solutions:
    software
  10. give some examples of software:
    • windows NT or XP
    • Mac OS
    • UNIX
    • LINUX
  11. five fundamental operations of the computer:
    • input
    • processing
    • storage
    • output
    • communications
  12. entry of data via hardware:
    input
  13. converts data from the CPU into information that can be used to solve problems:
    processing
  14. internal (short-term and small volumes) or external (long-term and larger volumes):
    storage
  15. the point at which post-processing can occur. a monitor, for example:
    output
  16. how data and images can be sent anywhere in the world:
    communications
  17. name various types of communication technologies (9):
    • telephones
    • radios
    • movie cameras
    • televisions
    • cell phones
    • webtv
    • internet
    • wi-fi
    • blutooth
  18. three key elements of computer communication technology:
    • modem
    • communication media
    • communication networks
  19. used to send and receive signals from the computers by converting digital to analog/analog to digital:
    modem (can be internal or external, and transmits data in bps)
  20. converting digital to analog:
    converting analog to digital:
    • digital to analog: modulate
    • analog to digital: demodulate
  21. the medium by which data is transmitted (ex. wires, coaxial cables, fiber optics, microwave, and satellites):
    communication media
  22. connects several computers and allows for data to be shared:
    communication networks
  23. the layouts of communication networks that include host computer, nodes, packets, protocols, and other devices (hubs, bridges, routers):
    topologies
  24. the process of changing data to information:
    informatics
  25. list some informatics subspecialties (7):
    • medical informatics
    • health care informatics
    • biomedical informatics
    • nursing informatics
    • imaging informatics (radiology informatics)
    • cardiology informatics
    • clinical informatics
  26. the application of IT to healthcare or medicine is referred to as ____________ and ________________.
    • health care informatics
    • medical informatics
  27. medical imaging informatics encompasses several modalities, such as (6):
    • diagnostic radiography
    • magnetic resonance imaging
    • medical sonography
    • nuclear medicine
    • computed tomography
    • radiation therapy
  28. medical imaging informatics plays a significant role in health care since it is used for (6):
    • diagnosis
    • assessment and planning
    • guidance of procedures communication
    • education
    • training
    • research
  29. the tasks performed by computers in a digital imaging department include (7):
    • digital image acquisition
    • digital image processing
    • digital image display
    • image storing and archiving
    • computer networking
    • image transmission
    • PACS
  30. a computer-based system for storing and transmitting images:
    PACS
  31. the major components of PACS:
    • acquisition modalities
    • computer network database server
    • archival system
    • soft-copy display workstation
    • connected to HIS and RIS
  32. collects and processes data in order to provide the user with information that can help with problem solving and decision making:
    health information system (HIS)
  33. two major components to HIS:
    • central information system (CIS)
    • administrative information system (AIS)
  34. a system that includes order entry system, monitoring system, nursing information system, laboratory information system, and radiology information system:
    central information system (CIS)
  35. a system that includes registration, scheduling, financial payroll, human resources, quality assurance, and contract management:
    administrative information system (AIS)
  36. some important aspects of (RIS):
    • order entry
    • scheduling for various imaging procedures
    • report generation
    • billing preparation
    • other related functions (inventory monitoring, statistical analysis, communications concerning daily operations)
  37. _______________ is replacing the paper-based medical records.
    electronic health record (EHR)
  38. a secure, real-time, point-of-care patient-centric information resource for physicians:
    • the electronic health record (EHR)
    • as defined by HIMSS
  39. the six components of EHR:
    • order entry
    • clinical documentation
    • data repository
    • decision support
    • results reporting
    • clinical messaging and email
  40. deals with how efficient and effective the imaging modalities, PACS, and information systems are able to share data in a seamless manner:
    systems integration
  41. some requirements for effective and efficient communication (5):
    • interface
    • data dictionary
    • uniform language
    • master patient index
    • communication standards
  42. connects a system so it can exchange data:
    interface (newer systems are referred to as interface engines which connect several systems)
  43. provides definition of terms used in a particular enterprise:
    data dictionary
  44. a database that contains all information about the patient and plays an important role in identifying and locating the records belonging to the patient under study:
    MPI (master patient index)
  45. the two communication standards within the radiology department that communicate textual data and images:
    • HL-7 (textual)
    • DICOM (images)
  46. the protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing or transit, and against the denial of service to authorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats:
    • information security
    • as defined by the U.S. National Information Systems Security
  47. the three categories of security threats:
    • social engineering attacks
    • hardware attacks
    • software attacks
  48. a security threat in which data and information are obtained from authorized users by means of deception:
    social engineering attacks
  49. a security threat by means of attacks on hardware components. (for example: the theft of the actual computer):
    hardware attacks
  50. a security threat involving attacks on the software by means of viruses like worms, Trojan horses, malicious programs, and demial of service:
    software attacks
  51. offer a means to fight against security threats with the use of antivirus and spyware detection programs:
    security methods
  52. security methods can include (6):
    • physical security
    • passwords
    • firewalls
    • spyware detection software
    • encryption and keys
    • wireless security measures
  53. name examples of various ways a technologist can act as an informaticist (5):
    • by being well versed in technology he/she can provide the best images for the radiologist
    • must access images and send them to PACS
    • can perform QC on image acquisition devices, display devices, and PACS
    • can educate others on advances in technology
    • can assist in image post-processing, imaging research and publishing ventures
  54. ______________ have developed a Fellowship curriculum for radiologists
    Electronic Imaging Technology (EIT) specialists
  55. The EIT Fellowship curriculum developed for radiologists includes:
    • image analysis and processing
    • image display technologies
    • PACS (storage, networks, and PACS administration)
    • IT and systems integration (information systems, data secureity, economics, legal issues, and research)
  56. The ___________________ have helped to develop a curriculum that includes IT, clinical informatics, PACS administration, and academics.
    Electronic Imaging Technology specialists
  57. ______________ has developed over time which requires the radiologist to have IT skills in order to provide leadership in applying IT to radiology.
    "radiology informatics"
  58. name the three specific areas a PACS administrator addresses:
    • behavioral
    • business
    • technical competencies
  59. behavioral duties of a PACS administrator include:
    • training
    • workflow analysis
    • reading environment
    • customer relations management
  60. business duties of a PACS administrator include:
    • examining competencies in PACS readiness
    • economics
    • strategic vision
    • vendor selection
    • sustaining PACS
  61. technical competencies that are the duties of a PACS administrator include:
    • troubleshooting
    • systems management
    • modalities
    • security systems
  62. provided through PACS Administration in Radiology Certification (PARCA):
    PACS certification
  63. PACS certification provided through PARCA at four different levels:
    • Certified PACS Associate (CPAS)
    • Certified PACS Interface Analyst (CPIA)
    • Certified PACS Systems Analyst (CPSA)
    • Certified PACS System Manager (CPSM)
  64. ___________________ is a step beyond a PACS administrator.
    Certification in Imaging Informatics (CIIP)
  65. Certification in Imaging Informatics (CIIP) was founded by:
    • Society of Informatics in Medicine (SIIM)
    • American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT)
  66. details covered concerning CIIP by SIIM and ARRT:
    • mission
    • goal
    • eligibility criteria
    • examination development process
    • ( @ www.siim.org)
  67. American Board of Imaging Informatics (ABII) was founded by:
    • Society of Informatics in Medicine (SIIM)
    • American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT)
  68. the mission of the American Board of Imaging Informatics (ABII) was to enhance:
    • patient care
    • professionalism
    • competence in imaging informatics
  69. name two "extra" responsibilities of the ABII:
    • to manage the Imaging Informatics Professional (IIP)
    • award the Certified Imaging Informatics Professional (CIIP) to qualified individuals
  70. Imaging Informatics tools specific to radiology:
    • quality control reporting
    • technologist peer review
    • communication between radiologist and referring physician
  71. Educating oneself on the needs of the patient to better meet those needs is being achieved through:
    imaging informatics
  72. ________________ takes into consideration all factors involved that would ensure the imaging operation is working properly.
    quality control
  73. give three reasons why QC is still required when imaging operations are conducted using DR:
    • human error (spontaneous and random)
    • machines can degrade over time
    • combination of human and machines increases room for error
  74. the visible, ongoing effort to collect information about an imaging operation to help improve efficiency and quality:
    Quality Control (QC)
  75. When it comes to QC and QA, which program is a part of the other?
    QC is part of a QA program
  76. seeks to get the most efficient performance from both the imaging facility and the physician:
    Quality Assurance (QA)
  77. a well established _______________ can help prevent malpractice claims and improve efficiency and quality of the department.
    Quality Assurance (QA) program
  78. QC is accomplished through four steps:
    • Acceptance Testing (AT)
    • Establishment of Baseline Performance
    • Diagnosis of changes in performance
    • Verification of Correction of Deterioration
  79. determines whether equipment meets the requirements of state and federal regulatory agencies as well as purchase contract requirements:
    Acceptance Testing (AT)
  80. Acceptance Testing (AT) is usually the responsibility of:
    • the medical physicist
    • (American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) have defined specific tests for CR)
  81. ________________ are the performances that will be monitored regularly and _________________ are the maximum deviation from the norm.
    • indicators
    • control limits (legally no deviation of more than 2%)
  82. a _______________ allows for accurate diagnosis.
    "quality" image
  83. various qualities of an image include:
    • contrast
    • resolution
    • noise
    • prevention of artifacts
  84. a feature to take advantage of information that already exists in RIS:
    DICOM modality worklist (MWL)
  85. in-depth info about patient (each step) as they flow through the hospital:
    MetaData
  86. _______________________ can help prevent human errors from the technologist entering data at the time of the procedure.
    The pre-entry of data with HIS and RIS
  87. Name some details that can be determined by MetaData, offering precise data required to support an accurate QA/QC program:
    • acquisition date/time
    • image date/time
    • part x-rayed
    • techniques used
    • repeats
    • current of x-ray tube
    • collimation parameters
    • SID/SOD
    • use of filter
    • exposure to patient
    • cell use
  88. _______________ can be used to ensure proper positioning of the cassette with the part being x-rayed.
    manual demographic aids
  89. calibration for nonuniformity is also called:
    shading correction
  90. requires exposing the receptor to a uniform field of radiation in order to check for the uniformity of the beam:
    flat field
  91. during the flat field process, the equipment can compensate for differences in gain and artifacts, such as ________________.
    dead pixels
  92. Digital Radiography is considered to be RIM, which is:
    Reusable Image Media
  93. If the IR is not erased completely, phantom images or _______________ can appear.
    ghost images
  94. light artifacts produced consistently at the receptor can be due to:
    • barium
    • dust
    • debris
  95. Name the three key factors routinelychecked, no matter the tool or equipment, and an example of one tool that checks these factors:
    • linearity, resolution, sharpness
    • Fuji One Shot Phantom Plus
  96. With the Fuji One Shot, a _________ is used to check detail, and a __________ is used to check noise.
    • wire mesh
    • burger phantom
  97. In reject analysis, almost half of the images are rejected due to:
    positioning errors (46.9%)
  98. created by using higher techniques than recommended by the technique chart and using plus densities with AEC:
    exposure factor creep
  99. used by engineers and scientists to mean the ratio between the highest detectable radiation level and the lowest detectable radiation level for an image receptor:
    latitude
  100. used by technologists to mean the ratio of the highest exposure factor selection or the lowest exposure factor selection on the x-ray generator that will produce an acceptable radiographic image:
    exposure latitude
  101. the ____________ puts the image within diagnostic range, while ___________ give the ranges of gray needed for specific anatomical parts.
    • Look-up table
    • histograms
  102. with DR, the ____________ value is much lower than the ___________.
    • exposure latitude value (100)
    • receptor latitude (10,000)
    • *** screen film latitude is about 2
  103. when an image is underexposed the image will appear __________, while overexposure __________________
    • grainy
    • looses contrast
  104. with the guidance of histograms and the look-up table, changes in ____________ are made to improve contrast in DR.
    algorithms
  105. helps in matching the appearance of the image on different electronic displays and helps to equalize the human observer's perception of contrast in light and in dart areas of the image.
    • Gray-Scale Display Function (GSDF)
    • specified by DICOM
  106. Some electronic displays change Gray-Scale Display Function (GSDF) automatically for:
    • variations in ambient illumination
    • changes in display performance
  107. _________________ has defined QC tests for electronic displays intended for primary interpretation.
    AAPM Task Group 18
  108. list errors that can occur in the delivery of DR images from acquisition stations to PACS (7):
    • transmission can be interrupted w/o any notification of sender
    • image can arrive safely only to be deleted by cache
    • image can arrive w/o critical information
    • incorrect GSDF calibration
    • display may have inadequate pixel matrix to display full resolution (loss of resolution, detail or can produce Moire pattern)
    • incorrect or missing demographics or annotations
    • inadequate viewing conditions due to high ambient illumination and glare
  109. Reminder!!! after 8 hours, _______% of image quality may be lost.
    25%
  110. Who verifies patient ID and exam info and how often?
    • technologist
    • each exam
  111. Who verifies patient positioning and how often?
    • technologist
    • each view
  112. Who verifies image quality (whether to release or repeat) and how often?
    • lead technologist
    • each image
  113. Who verifies exams in PACS and how often?
    • lead technologist
    • each exam
  114. Who reconciles patient data & image counts in PACS and how often?
    • informatics (IT)
    • incidental
  115. Who reports substandard images and how often?
    • radiologists
    • incidental
  116. Who erases cassette-based image receptors and how often?
    • technologists
    • start-of-shift
  117. Who tests image receptor uniformity how often?
    • QC technologist
    • weekly
  118. Who cleans cassette-based image receptors and how often?
    • technologists
    • monthly
  119. Who compiles and reviews reject analysis data and how often?
    • QA coordinator
    • monthly
  120. Who verifies display calibrations and how often?
    • clinical engineer
    • quarterly
  121. Who verifies x-ray generator functions and how often?
    • medical physicist
    • annually
  122. Who verifies receptor calibrations and how often?
    • medical physicist
    • semi-annually
  123. Who reviews QC indicators and how often?
    • QA committee
    • quarterly
  124. In the U.S. the specifics of QC for digital mammography is set by the federal government under the:
    Mammography Quality and Standards Act (MQSA)
  125. Tomosynthesis in DM was recently approved by who and when?
    • FDA
    • fall of 2011

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