Andy bio 8

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Andy bio 8
2012-04-12 01:12:03
Andy bio

Andy bio 8
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  1. Adaptive radiation
    emergence of a # of lineages from a single ancestral species
  2. sickle cell anemia caused by....?
    a subst. of valine (GUA or GUG) for glutamic acid (GAA or GAG) in the coding of Hb
  3. Cleavage
    • early embryonic mitotic divisions that lead to an inc. in cell number not not cell protoplasm
    • 1st cleavage 32 hours after fertilization
    • 2nd 60 hours
    • 3rd 72 (at which point the 8 celled embryo reaches the uterus)
  4. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine
    derived from the iodination of aa tyrosine necessary for growth and neuro development of children (increase rate of metabolism)
  5. conditioned reflex
    the response learned through pavlovian conditioning
  6. Kidney filtration
    • 20% of blood plasma entering glomerulus forced into surrounding bowman's capsule
    • filtrateis is isotonic with blood plasma
    • blood cells, proteins, and albumin remain in circulation system
  7. Steroid hormones (examples)
    • produced by : testes, ovaries, placenta, and adrenal cortex
    • Bind to: specific receptor proteins in the cytoplasm
    • Receptor-hormone complex enters the nucleus and binds to receptors on chromatin affecting transcription and future translation.
    • estrogen and aldosterone
  8. Endochondial ossification
    Existing cartilage is replaced by bone
  9. Interferons
    proteins produced by cells under viral attack. They diffuse to other cells to prevent the spread of the virus
  10. Gray Matter
    (outer portion of the brain)
  11. Jawless fish (examples)
    • eel-like, retain the notochord
    • cartilaginous internal skeleton
    • sucking mouth

    include class Agnatha (ex. lamprey, hagfish)
  12. Reticular Activating system
    the "startle response" and the many neurons involved.
  13. Disjunction
    • in meiosis homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite poles of the cell '
    • during anaphase
  14. Protists resembling fungi
    • slime molds often placed in fungi but more related to protists
    • coenocytic (many nuclei) mass of protoplasm
    • animal like and plant like life stages
    • reproduce asexually by sporulation
  15. Pancreatic enzymes
    • amylase
    • trypsin-protein digestion
    • Lipase
  16. Gastrin
    • A hormone released by stomach when food ingested
    • Gastrin carried to gastric glands where stimulates secretion of HCl
  17. ACTH (regulated by..?)
    • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland
    • stimulates productino of glucocorticoids and sex steroids but does not control aldosterone
    • Regulated by: CRF (cortic trophin releasing factor)
  18. Invertebrate NS: Annelida
    • primitive CNS
    • central nerve cord
    • anterior brain of fused ganglia
    • definite nerve pathways lead from receptors to effecters
  19. LH
    • In females---stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum
    • In males----stimulates interstitial cells to synthesize testosterone
  20. Gastric Mucosa
    lines the walls of the stomach and secretes mucus which protects the stomach linging from acidity. Also secrete pepsin, and HCl
  21. Circulation in arthropods
    open circulatory systems--blood in direct contact with tissues. Blood flows through a dorsal vessel and into spaces called sinuses where exhange occurs
  22. Cnidarians (examples....)
    • (Coelenterates)
    • have a gastrovascular cavity (digestive sac closed at one end)
    • 2 layers of cells (ectoderma and endoderm)

    ex. hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, coral