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What are the most important minerals stored in bones?
Calcium and Phosphorus
A round or oval opening in a bone is called a:
A fracture common in osteoporatic bones is:
The Greater Trochanter is located on the:
Which type of membrane contains fluid between the visceral and parietal layers?
What is the only dry membrane?
What are dermal papillae?
Fingerlike projections of the dermis into the epidermis.
What are glycoprotiens?
Substances that make the cell sticky or fuzzy.
What are Microvilli?
Projections that increase the surface area of the cell.
What are the 2 types of passive transport?
A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is:
Phases of Cell Cycle:
Where is reticular connective tissue found?
- Lymph nodes
- Bone Marrow
What are the main elements in the body?
Correct sequence of organization in the human body:
- Organ System
What is a Greenstick Fracture?
Cracking of the bone without actual separation of parts. Common in children.
What is a Comminuted fracture?
Fracture where bone fragments into many pieces.
What does the Dorsal Cavity contain?
- Cranial Cavity
- Vertebral Canal
What does the Ventral Cavity contain?
- Thoracic Cavity
- Abdominopelvic Cavity
What are the 4 types of energy?
What is chemical energy and how is it created?
The type of energy found in the body, created when bonds are broken.
What is mechanical energy?
Involved in movement - matter and the body.
What is an atom and what are the 3 types?
Building block of matter.
What is the Atomic Number?
Number of protons in an atom.
What is atomic mass?
Number of protons and neurtrons.
What is an isotope?
- Different number of neutrons
- Same number of protons
What is atomic weight?
Close to the mass number of the most abundant isotope of the atom.
What is an electron shell called when isn't filled?
What is an electron shell called when it is filled?
3 Types of chemical bonds:
- 1. Ionic
- 2. Covalent
- 3. Hydrogen
What are ionic bonds?
Electrons completely transfer from one atom to another
What are covalent bonds?
Electrons are shared between 2 atoms.
What are hydrogen bonds?
Weakest chemical bond.
What is an Ion?
Atom that has an electrical charge
What are the 2 types of ions?
- Cations - Positive
- Anions - Negative
What is a reactant?
Starting material that undergoes a change during a chemical reaction.
What is a product?
The result of a chemical reaction.
What is synthesis?
2 or more molecules bond to form a more complex structure.
A + B = AB
What is decomposition?
Bonds of a molecule break to form simpler molecules.
AB > A + B
What is an exchange reaction?
Molecules change position as bonds are broken.
AB + CD > AC + BD
What is a reversible reaction?
Product that an change back to its orginal state
A + B <> AB
What is an acid?
Electrolyte that releases hydrogen ions.
What is a base?
Substances that combine with hydrogen ions.
0 - 6 = Acid
7 = Neutral
8 - 14 = Base/Alkaline
What do electrolytes do?
Release ions in water.
What is the pH of blood?
7.35 - 7.45
What is Alkalosis and what are the symptoms?
Blood pH of 7.5 - 7.8
Symptoms: Agitated and Dizzy
What is Acidosis and its symptoms?
Blood pH of 7.0 - 7.3
Symptoms: Disoriented and Fatigued
What is a buffer?
A chemical that resists a pH change.
How are salts formed?
As a reaction between acids and bases
What are Organic Molecules and some Examples?
Anything that contains Carbon and Hydrogen.
- Nucleic Acids
What are inorganic molecules and some examples?
Don't contain carbon.
What is a phospholipid bilayer?
Heads are hydrophillic and love water
Tails are hydrophobic and hate water
What are monosaccharides?
What are disaccharides?
2 Simple Sugars:
- Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
- Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
- Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
What are polysaccharides?
What are lipids?
Fats that are nonsoluable in water, but soluable in organic solvents.
What are protiens made of?
What are nucleic acids and what do they do?
5 carbons sugars that control cell activities.
What makes up DNA/RNA?
Nucleotide Bases such as:
3 parts of a cell:
- Cell Membrane
What is histology?
Study of tissues
What are ribosomes?
Organelle made of protien and located in the cytoplasm and rough ER.
What is rough ER?
Organelle that hold Ribosomes.
What is smooth ER?
Organelle that makes cholesterol and detoxifies the body.
What is the Golgi Apparatus?
Organelle that modifies and packages protiens, and creates secretory vescicles.
What is the mitochondria?
Organelle that supplies energe to the cell.
What is a lysosome?
Sac that contains enzymes and eats things up in the cell.
What does a peroxisome do?
Detoxify harmful chemicals.
What are centrioles?
Rod shaped bodies of microtubules within the cell.
What does cilia do?
move things across the cell surface
What unit are cells measured in?
- 1/1000 of a meter
3 Regions of the Nucleus
- Nuclear Membrane
What is cytoplasm?
Liquid part of cytosol, located outside of nucleus.
What is active transport?
Transport that uses energy.
What is passive transport?
Transport that doesn't use energy.
What are the 3 types of diffusion?
- Simple diffiusion
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water.
What is simple diffusion?
Requires no help.
What is facilitated diffusion?
Requires help, but no energy.
What is filtration?
Solutes forced through a membrane by fluid or Hydrostatic pressure
What is an isotonic solution?
Solution that has the same osmotic pressure as body fluids.
What is a hypertonic solution?
Solution that has a higher osmotic pressure than body fluids.
What is a hyptonic solution?
Solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than body fluids
What are the 2 active transport processes?
- 1. solute pumping
- 2. bulk transport
How is solute pumping energized?
3 types of Bulk Transport
What does endocytosis do?
Take things into the cell
What are the 2 types of endocytosis?
- phagocytosis - eats
- pinocytosis - drinks
What is exocytosis?
Moving things out of the cell
What is transcytosis?
Moving things across the cell
What happens during Prophase?
Chromatin becomes chromasomes
What happens during metaphase?
Chromosomes align in the middle.
What happens during Anaphase?
Chromosomes separate and pull towards the end of the cell
What happens in telophase?
Forms 2 daughter nuclei
4 types of body tissue:
How is epithelium classified?
# of layers
3 shapes of tissues:
Squamous - flat
Cubodial - cub
Columnar - column
What tissue lines body cavaties?
What tissue is common in glands and lines walls of kidneys and ovaries?
What tissue lines the digestive tract and produces mucous?
What tissue lines the mouth, skin and esophagus?
What is transitional epithelium?
Shape of cells depend on stretch of tissue, like the urinary tract.
What type of gland is ductless?
What kind of gland has ducts?
3 Types of connective tissue:
What is bone made of?
What kind of connective tissue supports the ear?
What type of connective tissue are vertebral discs made of?
2 types of dense connective tissue:
- Tendons - connect muscle to bone
- Ligaments - connect bone to bone
How does epitheleal and fibrous tissues repair themselves?
How does skeletal tissue repair itself?
How does cardiac muscle and nervous tissue repair themselves?
Poorly, forms scar tissue.
3 types of epitheleal membranes:
What is the cutaneous membrane?
Dry membrane of the skin.
What is a mucous membrane?
Membrane that lines all body cavities that open to the exterior
What is a serous membrane?
Lines body cavities that are closed to the surface.
What are the 3 specific serous membranes?
What are the 2 layers of the dermis?
Determinants of critical burns:
Over 25% has 2nd degree burns
Over 10% has 3rd degree burns
3rd degree burns on face, hands or feet
What is a basal cell carcinoma?
Least malignant of skin cancer
What is a squamous cell carcinoma?
Carcinoma of the lymph nodes that arises from the stratum spinosm
- Border Irregularity