MNGT Finale

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MNGT Finale
2012-05-09 11:05:38
MNGT Finale

MNGT Finale
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  1. Influence
    • Central competence that all soft skills/interpersonal areas have in common.
    • Investigates the causes of human change, whether that change is a behavior, attitude, or belief
  2. Complience
    • Complying by behavior
    • Like comming to class
  3. Persuasion
    • Change in attitude
    • Persuade to vote
  4. Education
    Belief is called education or propaganda
  5. Ingratiation
    complimenting someone an dthey feel good to go a task then
  6. Coalitions
    Gang up with people
  7. Pressure/Coercion
    Gun to head
  8. Echange Tacti
    Help me and I will help you
  9. 6 Principles of Persuasion
    • 1) Liking: we like those who like us and are like us
    • 2) Recriprocity: exchange where you do for me, I do for you. Fairness
    • 3) Social Proof: Tip Jar, don't want to be the first
    • 4) Consistancey: especially in public ( agree to it then more compelled to it)
    • 5) Authority: Listen to those we think are experts
    • 6) Scarcity: want what we can't have, and what is limited
  10. Power
    A capacity that A hs to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A's wishes.
  11. Dependencey
    • The greater B's dependence on A the great is A;s power in the relationship.
    • Based on alternatives that B percieves and the importance that B places on the alernative that A controls.
  12. Difference in Leadership and Power
    • Goal compatability: power doesn not require goals, just dependence
    • Direction: Leadership focuses on downward influence on one;s followers, Powere does not
    • Research emphasis: leadership research emphasizes sytle, where power focuse on tacitcs for gaining compliance
  13. Formal Power
    • Based on an individuals position in an organization.
    • Comes from coerce or reward or fromal authority
  14. Coercive Power
    • Dependent on fear
    • Fear out of negative results that might occure if don't comply
    • A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss suspend or demaote B.
    • Also by withholding key info
  15. Reward Power
    • People comly with the wishes or directives of antother because doing so produces positive beniefits
    • One who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others.
  16. Legitmate Power (Formal power)
    • Represents the formal authority to contorl and use organizational rsources
    • Power based on postition
    • It includes acceptance by members in an organization of the authority of a postion
    • Like princible, bank president...
  17. Personal Power
    • Power that comes from an indivuduals unique characteristcs.
    • Expert Power and referent power
  18. Expert Power
    • Influence wielded as a result of expertise, speccial skill or knowledge
    • One of the most powerful slurces of influence
  19. Referent Power
    • Based on identification with a person who has desirable resouces or personal traits
    • If I like, respect and admire you, you can exercise powerover me because I want to please you
    • Devolps out of admiration of another and desire to be like that person
  20. Which are most powerful?
    Personal sources of power are most effective
  21. Dependencey
    • Key to Power
    • General Postulate: The greater B's dependency on A, the great er the power A has over B.
    • Inversly proportional to the alternative sources of supply.
  22. What creates dependency
    • Dependency increased when the resouce you control is importatnt, scarce, and nonsubsittutable
    • Importantce: it not important then no body wants it
    • Scarcity: If somthing is nplentiful, possession of it will not increase your power
    • Nonsubstitutiability: The fewer iable substitutes for a resouce, the more power the xcontrol over theat resource provides.
  23. Power Tactics
    • Ways in which people translate power basess into specific ation.
    • What options do individuals have for influencint their boseese, cowerkeers or employees
    • There are nine distinct influenct tactis
  24. Legitimacy
    Relying on ones authority position or stressing that a request is in acordance with organizational policies or rules.
  25. Rational persuasion
    Presneting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrat that a rewqest is reasonable
  26. Inspirational Appeals
    Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a targe's values, needs, hopes and aspirations
  27. Consultation
    Increaseing the target's motivation and support by involing him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be accomplished
  28. Exchange
    Rewarding the target with benefits or favosrs in exchangre ofor folowing a rewest
  29. Personal appeals
    Asking for comliance based on friendship or loyalty
  30. Ingratitaiton
    Using flatery, praise, or firendly behviror prior to making a requeset
  31. Presser
    using warning, repeated demands, and threats
  32. Coalitions
    Enlisting the aid of other people tp persuade the ratet or useing the support of others as a reason for the target to agree
  33. Most effective tactics
    • Rational persuasion, inspirational apppeals,a nd consultation tend to be most effective
    • Pressuse tends to backfire and is least effective
  34. Organiztional Politics
    The use of power to affectg decision making in an organization or on behaviors by members taht are self-serving and organizationally nonsanctioned.
  35. Political Behavior
    Activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the org but that influence or attempt to tinflunce the dirtribution of advantages and disadvantagges within the org.
  36. Legitimate political behavior
    • Normal everyday politicst
    • Complaining to your supervisor, bypassing chain of command, forming coalitions, obstructing organizational ploices
  37. Illegitimate politcal behaviros
    • Extreme politicla behavior that violates the implied rules of the game
    • Play hardball
    • Sabotage, whistle-blowing, sybolic protest or groups of employees simultaneously callin in sick
  38. Individual factors of Political Behavior
    • High self-monitors, internal locus of control, high need for power
    • Machiaveliian personality with will to maipulate the dwsire for power
    • Investment in the org, percieved alternatives,a nd expectaions of success
  39. Org factors of Political Behavior
    • Where more room for promotions
    • Low trust, role ambiguity, democratic decision making, high pressures for performance
    • Most political actions is Promotions decisions and advancemnet
    • Less trust the hight lever political behavior
    • Role ambiguity means roles unclear so not noticed whith behvior
  40. Defensive Behaviors
    • REactive an dprotectgive behaviors to avoid action, balem or change
    • Often associated with negative feelings troward teh job and work environment.
  41. Impression Managment
    The process by wic individuals attempt to control the impressionm others form of them
  42. Impression Managment Techniques
    • Confromity
    • Excuses
    • Apologies
    • Self-Prootion
    • Flattery
    • Favors
    • Association
  43. 6 Principles of Influence
    • Liking
    • Recriprocity
    • Social Proof
    • Consistency
    • Authority
    • Scarcity
  44. Liking
    • We like those who like us and who are like us
    • More likely to do things if like them
  45. Recriprocity
    • Exchange wehre you do for me, I do for you
    • We like things to be fair
  46. Social Proof
    • Tip Jar
    • People will do things when they see other people doing it
  47. Consistency
    • Especially when commiting to somthing in public or signing things
    • If commit orally or in wirting, more likely to do it
  48. Authority
    We listen to those whom we think are experts
  49. Scarcity
    • Want what we can't have
    • They generate demand
  50. Conformity
    Agreeing with someone elses onpoino in order to gain his or her approval
  51. Excuses
    Explanations of a predciament creaing event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament
  52. Apologies
    Admitting responsivility for an undesirable even and simultaneousely seeking to get a pardon for the action
  53. Self-Pormotion
    Highlightin one's best qaualities, downplaying one's deficits, and calling attention to one's achievements
  54. Flattery
    Comlimenting others about their virtues in an effort ot make oneself appear perceptinve and likeable
  55. Favors
    Doing somthing nice for sonmeone to gain that personons approval
  56. Association
    Enhancing or protectin one's image by managing informationa bout people and things with which one is associated
  57. Conflict
    Process that begins when one part percieves that another party has negatively affected, or is aobut to negatively affect smothting that the first party cares about.
  58. Transitions in confict thought
    • Traditional view
    • Human relations view
    • Interactionist view
  59. Traditional View of Conflict
    • The believe that all confict is harmfu land must be avoidedd
    • Seen as sysfucntional outcome resulting form poor communication, a lack of opensess and trsust between people, and the failure of managers to responise to the needs and aspiration otheir employees
  60. Human Relations View
    • Argues that confict was a natural occurence in all goroups and organizations.
    • it can not be avoided or eliminated and somthimes may benefict a groups performace
  61. Interactionaist View
    • Encourages confict on the grounds that harmonious, peacful, transquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, nonresponsive to needs for change and innovaition
    • Functional: Conflicts taht support the goals of the group and imporve its performanceDystfuncitioanl: conflicts that hinder the group performance, destructive
  62. Three types of confict
    • Task confilct: related to the content and goals of the work
    • Relatinhisp conflict: focuses on interpersnal relationhships
    • Process conflict: relates to how work gest done
  63. Conflict Process
    • 5 stages
    • Ponteinal opposition
    • Cognition and personaliztion
    • INtentions
    • Behavior
    • Outcomes
  64. Stage 1: Pontntial opposition
    • Prexnce of conditions that creat opportunities for confict toa arise.
    • Communication
    • Structure
    • Personal variables
  65. Stage 2: Cognition and personaliztion
    • Where conflice isuues become defined and emotions are important
    • If stage 1 negatively affect somthing that one party cares aboutn the the potential for oppostion or compatibility becomes actualized in the this stage
    • Percieve conflict: awarmenss of conflcet
    • Felt conflict: emotial involvement in conflict
  66. Stage 3: Intentions
    • Decisions to act in a certain way
    • Competing: you win they lose
    • Collaboration: win win
    • Avoiding: ignore with who you disagree
    • Accomodating: Support someone else and give up yours
    • Compromising: no clear winner or loser
  67. Stage 4: Behavior
    • Conflict becomes visible
    • Statments, actiosn and reatios made by the parties
  68. Stage 5: Outcomeas
    Action-reactions interplay betweeen the conflictiong parties resultin consequences
  69. Negotiation
    A process in which two or more parties exhacnge goos or services and attempt toa garee on the exchanbge rate for them
  70. Bargaining stragegies
    • Deistibutieve bargaining
    • Integrated bargaining
    • Differe in their goal, motivation, interest, focus, information sahring, duration fo relatinoship
  71. Distributive
    • Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixzed amount of resuourses
    • Win/lose situation
    • Operates under zeior-sum condidiont meansing any gain I make at others expense
    • Short term relationship
  72. Integrative
    • Negotiaiton that seeks one or more settelments that can create a win win situation
    • High info sharing
    • Long term relationship
  73. Orgainaiztional Structure
    • How job tasts are formally divided, grouped and coordinated
    • 6 key elements
    • work specializtion
    • deparmentaliztion
    • Chain of command
    • Span of control
    • Cendtraliztiona nd decntralized
    • Formalization
  74. Work Specialtiztion
    • Division of Labor
    • To describe the degree to which activites int he org are subdivided into spearte jobs.
    • Instead of job being done by one person, one step by one person
  75. Departmentalization
    • The basis by which jobs in an org ar grouped together
    • Group by functions performed
    • Can be used for processing customers as well as procuts
  76. Chain of command
    • Unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the org to the lowers echelon and clarifies who reports to whom
    • Authority: rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders annd expect the order to be obeyed
    • Unity of Command: Subordinates should have only one superior to whm he or she is directly responsible for
  77. Span of Control
    • The number of subordiantes a manage can efficiently and effectively direct
    • The sieder or larget he span, the more effeicnet the org
    • Small are more expensive, make communication hard and create hierchy
  78. Central and decentralization
    Degree to which decison making is concentrated a t a single poin tin the org.
  79. Fromaliztiotion
    • The degree to which jobs within a org are stanadarzed.
    • More formalized means minimum amount of dicretion over what is to be done and how
  80. Simple Structure
    • Characterized most by what it is not
    • Not elaboarate
    • Lowe degree of demparmentalized, wide spando os control, authority entralized in a single perona and little formalization
    • Fast flexible and inexpensive
  81. Bureacracy
    • Standardization
    • Highly routine operation tasks acieved through specialization, very fromalzed rules and regulation, tasks that ar grouped into functional departments, cdntralzied athority, narrow spans of controla nd deciosn makeing that follows chain of command
  82. Matrix Structure
    • Creats dual lines of authority and combines functial and product departmentaliztion
    • advertising agencies, areospace firms, resarcha nd develpment laboratiores hospitals
    • Breaks unity of cmmand concept
  83. Virtual Org
    • A small core org that ousources major business functions
    • Highly centralized with little or no deparmentlaiztion
  84. Boungarlyess orgs
    • An org that seeks to eliminate the chain of cmmand, have limitless spans of control and rlpace deparment with empowered teams
    • Heavy on info technology
  85. Organizational Culture
    • A system of shared meaning held by members taht distinguishes the organization from other orgs
    • Set of key characteristics that the org values
  86. 7 Primary characterists
    • Innovationa dn risk taking
    • Attential to detail
    • Outcome oarientation
    • People orientation
    • Team orientataion
    • Aggressivenses
    • Stability
  87. Dominant Culture
    Expresses the core values taht are shared by a majoroity of the gors members
  88. Subcultures
    Mininculutes winthin an org, typicallly defiend by department desginations and geiographical spearation
  89. Core Values
    The priamary or dominant values that ar accepted throughout the org
  90. Strong Culture
    A culture in which the ocre values are intesnsly held and widely shared
  91. Culturs functions
    • Creates distinction between one org and another
    • Creates a sense of identity for or memebers
    • Commitment ot somthing larger than ones indiviual self interest
    • Enhances the stability of social system
    • Gueds and shapes attidtudse and behaviros oe employees
  92. How employees learn culture
    • Stories wihc circulate through orgs
    • Rituals: repetitive sequences of activiteis that express and rienforec e the key values of the org, what goals are important
    • Material Symbols as in the way the cubicals are or the benefitsz
    • Language different words for short cut
  93. Creating an Ethical Org
    • Be visible role model
    • Communicate ethical expecations
    • Provide ethical training
    • Visibly reward eethical acts and punish unethal ones
    • Provide protective mechanisms
  94. Creating a Positve org
    Culture that emplhasizes builidng on employee strnths, rewards meor that in punishes and emphasizes individual vitality and gorwth
  95. Forces for change
    • Nature of the workforce: multicultural change
    • Technology: faster, cheaper happen fast
    • Economic shocks: stock market collapse, low interst rates
    • Competition: global competitors, mergers and cosolidatiosn, growth of e-commerce
    • Social trends: internet chat rooms, retiment of baby boomers
    • World Politics: Iraq, markets in china, war on terriorism
  96. Planned Change
    Change activities that are intenatianl and goal oriented
  97. Change Agents
    • Personons who act a s ctalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities
    • Can be manager or nonmangaer, employedd, outside consultants
  98. Resistance to change
    • Can be overt, implicit, immediate, or deffered.
    • Easiset to deal when overt or immedieate
  99. Overcoming Resistance
    • Educationa nd communication
    • Participation
    • Building Support and ocmmitment
    • Implementing Changes Fairly
    • Manipuationa dn cooptatian
    • Selecting people who accept change
    • Coercion
  100. Lewin's Three Step Model
    • Unfreezing: changing to overcome the pressues of both ind resitanc and group conformity
    • Movement: change process that tranforms the og form staus quot ot desired end state
    • Refreezing: stablizzing a change intervention by balancing drinvng and restraing forces
  101. Kotter's 8 step
    • Estalish a sense of urgency by making reason why change needed
    • Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change
    • Create a new vison to direct the chang eand stragies for achiveing the vision
    • Removing barries to change so others act
    • Plan for creat and reward shor term s wins
    • Consolidate mprovment and make necesasry adjusment
    • Reinfoce the chanbges by demo relatioshp between new behavors and org success
  102. Stimulating a culture of innovation
    • Innovation: a new idea applied to intiation or improving a product process or service
    • Structrural vairalbles are most studed potental source of inovatoin
  103. Creatinga learning org
    An organization that has develped the continuous capacity toa dapt and change.
  104. Stresss
    Dynamic condition in which an ind is confronted with an opportuinty, demand or reslouce related to what the ind dedsires and for the outcom is percieve to be both uncertan and important
  105. Challenge stressors
    Stressors associated with owrk load, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency
  106. Hindrance stressors
    Stressors taht keep you from reaching your goals
  107. Demands
    Responsibilties pressures obligatinloa dneven uncertainties taht indiviulas face int eh workplace
  108. Resources
    Things within an indiviudals control taht can be used to resolve demands