Central competence that all soft skills/interpersonal areas have in common.
Investigates the causes of human change, whether that change is a behavior, attitude, or belief
Complying by behavior
Like comming to class
Change in attitude
Persuade to vote
Belief is called education or propaganda
complimenting someone an dthey feel good to go a task then
Gang up with people
Gun to head
Help me and I will help you
6 Principles of Persuasion
1) Liking: we like those who like us and are like us
2) Recriprocity: exchange where you do for me, I do for you. Fairness
3) Social Proof: Tip Jar, don't want to be the first
4) Consistancey: especially in public ( agree to it then more compelled to it)
5) Authority: Listen to those we think are experts
6) Scarcity: want what we can't have, and what is limited
A capacity that A hs to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A's wishes.
The greater B's dependence on A the great is A;s power in the relationship.
Based on alternatives that B percieves and the importance that B places on the alernative that A controls.
Difference in Leadership and Power
Goal compatability: power doesn not require goals, just dependence
Direction: Leadership focuses on downward influence on one;s followers, Powere does not
Research emphasis: leadership research emphasizes sytle, where power focuse on tacitcs for gaining compliance
Based on an individuals position in an organization.
Comes from coerce or reward or fromal authority
Dependent on fear
Fear out of negative results that might occure if don't comply
A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss suspend or demaote B.
Also by withholding key info
People comly with the wishes or directives of antother because doing so produces positive beniefits
One who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others.
Legitmate Power (Formal power)
Represents the formal authority to contorl and use organizational rsources
Power based on postition
It includes acceptance by members in an organization of the authority of a postion
Like princible, bank president...
Power that comes from an indivuduals unique characteristcs.
Expert Power and referent power
Influence wielded as a result of expertise, speccial skill or knowledge
One of the most powerful slurces of influence
Based on identification with a person who has desirable resouces or personal traits
If I like, respect and admire you, you can exercise powerover me because I want to please you
Devolps out of admiration of another and desire to be like that person
Which are most powerful?
Personal sources of power are most effective
Key to Power
General Postulate: The greater B's dependency on A, the great er the power A has over B.
Inversly proportional to the alternative sources of supply.
What creates dependency
Dependency increased when the resouce you control is importatnt, scarce, and nonsubsittutable
Importantce: it not important then no body wants it
Scarcity: If somthing is nplentiful, possession of it will not increase your power
Nonsubstitutiability: The fewer iable substitutes for a resouce, the more power the xcontrol over theat resource provides.
Ways in which people translate power basess into specific ation.
What options do individuals have for influencint their boseese, cowerkeers or employees
There are nine distinct influenct tactis
Relying on ones authority position or stressing that a request is in acordance with organizational policies or rules.
Presneting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrat that a rewqest is reasonable
Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a targe's values, needs, hopes and aspirations
Increaseing the target's motivation and support by involing him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be accomplished
Rewarding the target with benefits or favosrs in exchangre ofor folowing a rewest
Asking for comliance based on friendship or loyalty
Using flatery, praise, or firendly behviror prior to making a requeset
using warning, repeated demands, and threats
Enlisting the aid of other people tp persuade the ratet or useing the support of others as a reason for the target to agree
Most effective tactics
Rational persuasion, inspirational apppeals,a nd consultation tend to be most effective
Pressuse tends to backfire and is least effective
The use of power to affectg decision making in an organization or on behaviors by members taht are self-serving and organizationally nonsanctioned.
Activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the org but that influence or attempt to tinflunce the dirtribution of advantages and disadvantagges within the org.
Legitimate political behavior
Normal everyday politicst
Complaining to your supervisor, bypassing chain of command, forming coalitions, obstructing organizational ploices
Illegitimate politcal behaviros
Extreme politicla behavior that violates the implied rules of the game
Sabotage, whistle-blowing, sybolic protest or groups of employees simultaneously callin in sick
Individual factors of Political Behavior
High self-monitors, internal locus of control, high need for power
Machiaveliian personality with will to maipulate the dwsire for power
Investment in the org, percieved alternatives,a nd expectaions of success
Org factors of Political Behavior
Where more room for promotions
Low trust, role ambiguity, democratic decision making, high pressures for performance
Most political actions is Promotions decisions and advancemnet
Less trust the hight lever political behavior
Role ambiguity means roles unclear so not noticed whith behvior
REactive an dprotectgive behaviors to avoid action, balem or change
Often associated with negative feelings troward teh job and work environment.
The process by wic individuals attempt to control the impressionm others form of them
Impression Managment Techniques
6 Principles of Influence
We like those who like us and who are like us
More likely to do things if like them
Exchange wehre you do for me, I do for you
We like things to be fair
People will do things when they see other people doing it
Especially when commiting to somthing in public or signing things
If commit orally or in wirting, more likely to do it
We listen to those whom we think are experts
Want what we can't have
They generate demand
Agreeing with someone elses onpoino in order to gain his or her approval
Explanations of a predciament creaing event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament
Admitting responsivility for an undesirable even and simultaneousely seeking to get a pardon for the action
Highlightin one's best qaualities, downplaying one's deficits, and calling attention to one's achievements
Comlimenting others about their virtues in an effort ot make oneself appear perceptinve and likeable
Doing somthing nice for sonmeone to gain that personons approval
Enhancing or protectin one's image by managing informationa bout people and things with which one is associated
Process that begins when one part percieves that another party has negatively affected, or is aobut to negatively affect smothting that the first party cares about.
Transitions in confict thought
Human relations view
Traditional View of Conflict
The believe that all confict is harmfu land must be avoidedd
Seen as sysfucntional outcome resulting form poor communication, a lack of opensess and trsust between people, and the failure of managers to responise to the needs and aspiration otheir employees
Human Relations View
Argues that confict was a natural occurence in all goroups and organizations.
it can not be avoided or eliminated and somthimes may benefict a groups performace
Encourages confict on the grounds that harmonious, peacful, transquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, nonresponsive to needs for change and innovaition
Functional: Conflicts taht support the goals of the group and imporve its performanceDystfuncitioanl: conflicts that hinder the group performance, destructive
Three types of confict
Task confilct: related to the content and goals of the work
Relatinhisp conflict: focuses on interpersnal relationhships
Process conflict: relates to how work gest done
Cognition and personaliztion
Stage 1: Pontntial opposition
Prexnce of conditions that creat opportunities for confict toa arise.
Stage 2: Cognition and personaliztion
Where conflice isuues become defined and emotions are important
If stage 1 negatively affect somthing that one party cares aboutn the the potential for oppostion or compatibility becomes actualized in the this stage
Percieve conflict: awarmenss of conflcet
Felt conflict: emotial involvement in conflict
Stage 3: Intentions
Decisions to act in a certain way
Competing: you win they lose
Collaboration: win win
Avoiding: ignore with who you disagree
Accomodating: Support someone else and give up yours
Compromising: no clear winner or loser
Stage 4: Behavior
Conflict becomes visible
Statments, actiosn and reatios made by the parties
Stage 5: Outcomeas
Action-reactions interplay betweeen the conflictiong parties resultin consequences
A process in which two or more parties exhacnge goos or services and attempt toa garee on the exchanbge rate for them
Differe in their goal, motivation, interest, focus, information sahring, duration fo relatinoship
Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixzed amount of resuourses
Operates under zeior-sum condidiont meansing any gain I make at others expense
Short term relationship
Negotiaiton that seeks one or more settelments that can create a win win situation
High info sharing
Long term relationship
How job tasts are formally divided, grouped and coordinated
6 key elements
Chain of command
Span of control
Cendtraliztiona nd decntralized
Division of Labor
To describe the degree to which activites int he org are subdivided into spearte jobs.
Instead of job being done by one person, one step by one person
The basis by which jobs in an org ar grouped together
Group by functions performed
Can be used for processing customers as well as procuts
Chain of command
Unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the org to the lowers echelon and clarifies who reports to whom
Authority: rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders annd expect the order to be obeyed
Unity of Command: Subordinates should have only one superior to whm he or she is directly responsible for
Span of Control
The number of subordiantes a manage can efficiently and effectively direct
The sieder or larget he span, the more effeicnet the org
Small are more expensive, make communication hard and create hierchy
Central and decentralization
Degree to which decison making is concentrated a t a single poin tin the org.
The degree to which jobs within a org are stanadarzed.
More formalized means minimum amount of dicretion over what is to be done and how
Characterized most by what it is not
Lowe degree of demparmentalized, wide spando os control, authority entralized in a single perona and little formalization
Fast flexible and inexpensive
Highly routine operation tasks acieved through specialization, very fromalzed rules and regulation, tasks that ar grouped into functional departments, cdntralzied athority, narrow spans of controla nd deciosn makeing that follows chain of command
Creats dual lines of authority and combines functial and product departmentaliztion