Shin.txt

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emm64
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147243
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Shin.txt
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2012-04-12 11:10:35
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Shin Systems
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Shin Systems 2
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  1. H. pylori - virulence factors
    • Flagella: corkscrew motility enables penetration into viscous environment (mucus)
    • Mucinase: degrades gastric mucus
    • Urease: producing ammonia and neutralizing gastric acidity
  2. Food intoxication
    • Intoxication=toxins (or poisons) not bacteria cause illness
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Bacillus cereus
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Clostridium botulinum
  3. Food Infection
    • bacterial proliferation
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Escherichia coli
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Yersinia enterocolitica
    • Vibrio
    • Campylobacter
  4. S.aureus
    • GPC, nosocomial, cutaneous most common infection
    • Enterotoxin (heat stabile)
    • mainly responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning
    • heat stable (100°C, 30 min)
    • act as superantigen
  5. Bacillus cereus
    • GPB, ubiquitous in soil
    • Emetic-Rice, vomit, HEAT-STABILE
    • Diarrheal-meat, veggies, diarrhea, HEAT-LABILE
  6. Clostridium
    • GPR, spore-formers
    • ubiquitous in soil, water, normal flora in GI
  7. C. perfringens
    • Heat-labile enterotoxin
    • meat, sauces, gravy
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Spore is heat stabile
  8. C. botulinum
    • botulinum toxin
    • home-canned foods, honey
    • Botulism (paralytic illness)
    • spore is heat resistant
  9. Listeria monocytogenes
    • GPR, non-spore
    • isolated habtats
    • refrigerator and preserved food
    • Listeriosis
    • facultative intracellular
    • Low temp, high salt
  10. facultative intracellular food poisoners
    • Listeria
    • Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC)
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Yersinia
  11. Enterobacteriaceae Food infectors
    • Escherichia coli
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Yersinia enterocolitica
    • facultative anaerobes
    • catalase +
    • oxidase -
    • capsule
  12. Escherichia coli
    • Most common aerobic gram-negative rods in the GI tract
    • Strains causing gastroenteritis are generally acquired exogenously (contaminated food and water).
  13. E.Coli Gastroenteritis toxins
    • Shiga toxins (Stx) 2A/5B - hemolytic uremic syndrom-enterotoxin effect-block uptake of electrolytes
    • Shiga-like toxins
    • Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) - (cholera same action) inc cAMP and andenylate cyclase which causes hypersecretion of water and electrolytes
    • Heat-stable enterotoxins (ST)
  14. EAEC
    • enteroaggregative
    • non-nvasive
    • ST-like toxin and hemolysin
    • lethal to intestinal epitelial
  15. ETEC
    • Enterotoxigenic
    • non-invasive(no-fever)
    • LT and/or ST (heat labile, heat stabile)
    • traveler's diarrhea
  16. EPEC
    • moderately invasive "attaching-effacing"
    • strips microvilli->osmotic diarrhea
  17. EHEC
    • moderately invasive "attaching-effacing"
    • Stx
    • hemmorhagic colitis maybe hemolytic uremia
    • E. coli O157:H7 (verotoxin = shiga toxin)
  18. EIEC
    • Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)
    • invasive
    • type III secretion
    • dysentery-like diarrhea
    • FEVER
    • potentially fatal
  19. Salmonella
    • primary pathogen (always disease)
    • poultry eggs
    • fecal-oral
    • bile salt tolerant
    • intracellular
    • LT (heat labile enterotoxin)
  20. Shigella
    • primary pathogen
    • polluted drinking water
    • fecal-oral
    • highly infectious
    • S. dysenteriae
    • Shigellosis=bacillary DYSENTERY-blood, white cells, intestinal sloughing
    • intracelluar
    • bile resistant
    • STX-A-ribosome
    • blocks uptake of electrolytes
  21. Yersinia
    • Y. pestis-black death
    • Y.enterocolitica-pork
    • intracellular
    • TYPE III
    • low temp
    • Gasteroenteritis
  22. Vibrio
    • GNR-motile
    • Vibrio cholerae
    • Vibrio parahaemolyticus (halophilic)
    • Vibrio vulnificus (halophilic)
    • salty shellfish
  23. Vibrio cholerae
    • contaminated water or food.
    • person-to-person spread is rare
    • killed by stomach acids
    • Cholera enterotoxin (CtxA, CtxB)->andeylate cyclase->cAMP->hypersecretion (same as LT)
    • "rice-water stool"
    • Death caused by dehydration
  24. Campylobacter jejuni
    • MOST COMMON DIARRHEA IN US (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E.Coli)
    • GNR
    • penetrate mucus barrier with a corkscrew motion.
    • Most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in US, mostly via ingestion of animal sources especially chickens
    • Pathogenesis not fully characterized
  25. Clostridium difficile
    • Not a food-poisoning pathogen
    • Normal intestinal flora in a small proportion of healthy individuals (5%)
    • Diseases (side effects of taking antibiotic medicine)
    • antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD)
    • antibiotic induced pseudomembranous colitis
    • Virulence factors
    • exotoxin A: increases permeability of the intestinal cell wall (diarrhea)
    • exotoxin B (cytotoxin): damage mucosa and cause pseudomembrane formation
    • Exposure to antibiotics is associated with overgrowth of C. difficile and subsequent GI diseases
    • antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD)
    • antibiotic induced pseudomembranous colitis

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