Nur 103 test 3 A

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Nur 103 test 3 A
2012-04-12 12:42:41
Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Trigeminal neuralgia

Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
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  1. What is peripheral neuropathy?
    denotes damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system
  2. Name 3 kinds of neuropathies.
    • 1. mononeuropathy
    • 2. polyneuropathy
    • 3. viseralneuropathy
  3. What is mononeuropathy?
    is a type of neuropathy that only affects a single nerve
  4. What causes mononeuropathy?
    • often the cause is a localized trauma or infection
    • most common is physical compression of the nerve, (eg carpal tunnel syndrome)
    • interruption of blood supply (ischemia),
    • inflammation
  5. Name some common mononeuropathies?
    • shingles,
    • carpal tunnel syndrome
    • “foot falling asleep” is a mild form of mononeuropathy
  6. What is polyneuropathy?
    • neurological disorder that occurs when many nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.
    • acute or chronic
  7. What are some manifestations of polyneuropathy?
    • freq hands and feet are affected
    • sensory – decreased ability to feel hot/cold,
    • alt. or impaired sensation
    • impairment in autonomic systems
  8. What causes polyneuopathy?
    • infections
    • autoimmune reactions
    • toxins
    • certain drugs
    • cancer
    • diabetes mellitus (most common)
    • excessive use of alcohol
  9. What are some treatments for polyneuropathy?
    • treat the underlying disease
    • pain medications
    • physical therapy
    • Vyndaqel
  10. What is trigeminal neuralgia?
    • chronic disease
    • involving CN V (opthalmic/maxillary/mandibular)
    • usually middle to late life
    • pressure on nerve causes pain
  11. What is visceral neuropathy?
    impairment of the autonomic system nervers
  12. What organs does visceral neuropathy affect?
    • Autonomic neuropathy can affect any of these organ systems:
    • lungs, blood vessels, bone, adipose tissue, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system and genitourinary system.
  13. What are some s/s of visceral neuropathy?
    • depends on area of ANS involvement
    • can be:
    • gastraparesis
    • loss of sense of bladder or bowel fullness
    • orthostatic hypotension (fainting when standing up)nausea
    • bloating
    • diarrhea
    • sluggish movement of the small intestine
    • urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and retention
  14. What are some of the organs affected by visceral neuropathy?
    heart, lungs, blood vessels, bone, adipose tissue, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system and genitourinary system. Autonomic neuropathy can affect any of these organ systems.
  15. What are some collaborative treatments for peripheral disorders?
    • effects usually not reversible
    • non specific treatment,
    • but meds may help (neurontin, lyrical, cymbalta)
    • nsg care aimed at prevention:
    • properly fitted shoes,
    • no bare feet,
    • assess skin of foot daily
    • toenails professionally cut
    • check temp of eater with hand or thermometer before putting feet in water
  16. What are some s/s of trigeminal neuralgia?
    • severe facial pain
    • trigger zones
    • usually one sided
    • brief; seconds – minutes
    • remission can be a long period of time,
  17. What causes trigeminal neuralgia?
    • cause is unknown
    • might be:
    • flu, trauma, infection, pressure on the nerve
  18. What meds are used to treat trigeminal neuralia?
    • 1. carbamazepine (Tegretol)
    • 2. gabapentin (Neurotin)
    • 3. anticonvulsants
  19. What are some other treatments for trigeminal neuralgia?
    • keep journal to find triggers
    • possible triggers include:
    • chewing, cold, wind, shave, washing, putting on cream, etc.
    • surgery
  20. What surgery is done for trigeminal neuralgia?
    • rhizotomy
    • sever nerve but this leaves no sensation in cheek
  21. What is Bell's palsy?
    • facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve)
    • inability to control facial muscles on the affected side
    • most common acute mononeuropathy
  22. Who usually gets Bell's palsy?
    20 - 60 year olds
  23. What causes Bell's palsy?
    • No readily identifiable cause
    • sometimes occurs with other disease processes,
    • virus
    • inflammatory condition leads to swelling of the facial nerve that block the nerve functioning
  24. What are some s/s of Bell's palsy?
    • facial drooping on the affected half
    • unilateral paralysis
    • Facial palsy: unable to control:
    • blinking and closing the eyes,
    • smiling, frowning, lacrimation,
    • salivation, flaring nostrils
    • raising eyebrows,
  25. What is the prognosis for Bell's palsy?
    • usuall self limiting, 3 weeks – 6 month
    • most recover completely
    • sometimes residual s/s,
    • sometimes sever residual s/s
  26. What meds are used for Bell's palsy?
    • steroid
    • antivirals,(acyclovir)
    • anti inflammatory(prednisone)
  27. What are some nursing considerations for Bell's palsy?
    • self care
    • prevent injury -chewing and biting mouth parts
    • maintain nutrition
    • artificial tears – eyes can't blink or protect itself,
    • massage for pain
    • sometime physical therapy