Bio lab final

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Bio lab final
2012-04-23 15:24:10
Study guide labs 11

Lab 7-11 study guide
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  1. Cellular Respiration
    The process by which the orgainic molecules are converted to usable energy using an electron transport chain
  2. Metabolism
    The ___________ of glucose is used as the model of cellular respiration because the pathways are well known and occur in most organisms
  3. The type of cellular respiration most commonly used by animals, plants, fungi, and most bacteria is
    Aerobic cellular respiration
  4. Examples of Coenzymes are
    NAD, FAD
  5. NAD stands for?
    nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
  6. FAD stands for?
    flavin adenine dinucleotide
  7. when the coenzymes NAD and FAD accept hydrogen they become
  8. Cellular respiration can be summarized in which 4 steps?
    Glycolysis, Formation of Acetyl CoA, Kreb's cycle, and the Electron Transport System
  9. Glycolyis is
    a series of about 10 systematically catalyzed reactions occuring in the cytoplasm of the cell. Glucose is converted in two molecules of pyruvate. and ATP and NADH are produced.
  10. Glucose is?
    a six carbon sugar
  11. Pyruvate is?
    a three carbon compound
  12. Formation of acetyl CoA happens when?
    pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrion and converted to a two carbon acetyl group. this acetyl group combines coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA. Carbon dioxide and NADH are produced. This occurs twice for each glucose that is degraded
  13. Krebs Cycles is known alternatively as
    citric acid cycle and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
  14. Kreb's cycle
    the remaining carbons of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA are degraded into carbon dioxide and several molecules of NADH, FADH 2 and ATP are produced. this occurs twice for every glucose that is degraded
  15. Electron transport system (ETS)
    Consists of a series of carrier proteins in a chain that transports hydrogen protons and electrons. these hydrogens come from the NADH and FADH 2 that was produced in the Kreb's cycle. The electrons travel along the chain to the final electron acceptor which is oxygen. The protons form a gradient between the inner and outer membranes of the mitochondrion and participate in ATP formation during Chemiosmosis. Eventually the protons rejoin the electrons and oxygen at the end of the ETS to form water.
  16. The two most common fermentation pathways are
    lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
  17. A dye which serves as a redox indicator
    Methylene Blue
  18. Yeast cells become ______ when ______ ________ is oxidized but will become ______ when _____ _____ is reduced
    blue, methylene blue, colorless, methylene blue
  19. use oxygen and an electron transport system when O2 is available but use fermentation when O2 is not available
    facultative anaerobes
  20. When electrons are lost by a molecule, the molecule is said to be oxidized; however, when the molecules gain electrons, the molecules are said to be ________?
  21. What color are yeast cells containing reduced methylene blue?
  22. What might the yeast cells containing reduced methylene blue be doing?
    breaking down glucose
  23. What color are yeast cells containing oxidized methylene blue?
  24. Distinguish between Aerobes and facultative anaerobes
    oxygen is needed in aerobes
  25. If oxygen is available how many ATP's can a cell produce from one glucose molecule using aerobic cellular respiration?
  26. name the cell location where glycolysis occurs
  27. what phase of cellular respiration breaks down glucose into pyruvate
  28. where in the cell do the Kreb's cycle and ETS reaction occur?
  29. What are two molecules that transport hydrogen to the ETS
    NAD & FAD
  30. What is the final electron acceptor in the ETS during aerobic cellular respiration?
  31. What are the end products of aerobic cellular respiration
    Co2, alcohol, and heat
  32. what are the end products of lactic acid fermentation
    Lactic acid, 2 ATP
  33. How many ATP molecules are produced by fermentation
  34. What is the advantage to an organism having the ability to use both aerobic cellular respiration and fermentation
    Can gain energy with or without o2
  35. The entire range of radiant energy is called the
  36. the portion of the radiant energy that our eyes are capable of seeing is known as the
    visible spectrum
  37. Photons
    are units of light energy which we characterize as having a certain wavelength
  38. the distance between successive wave crests
  39. the wavelength of visible light is between ______ and ______ nanometers
    390-760 nm
  40. the process whereby plants capture solar energy and store a portion of this as chemical energy
  41. the process of creating organic compounds from atmospheric CO2 is referred to as
    CO2 Fixation or Carbon
  42. the plant cellular organelles which contain chlorophyll
  43. The green pigment largely responsible for capturing solar energy used for CO2 fixation
  44. light production accompanying the rapid decay of excited electrons returning to their ground state
  45. the process of separating various photosynthectic pigments
  46. Plant cells are all interconnected by little tunnels called
  47. a layer of cells that run along both the top and bottom of a leaf is known as
  48. a thin transparent coating along the upper surface of a leaf which does not consist of cells is called the
  49. a layer of closely packed elongated cells located directly below the uper epidermis
  50. Palisade mesophyll
  51. Loosely packed cells with many air spaces which functions primarily in absorbing CO2. This must present a plant cell wall surface moist with water so that CO2 can dissolve in it and move into the cells
    Spongy mesophyll
  52. along the epidermis, gps in the epidermis filled with two smaller cells. these are pores called the
  53. the two small cells that open and close the pore are called _____ cells. when the leaf is losing too much water by evaporation from the spongy mesophyll these cells close the pore
  54. Darker stained cells bounded by other special cells. this is the vascular system of the plant, which transports water, organic carbon, and minerals throughout the plant body
    Vascular bundle
  55. referred to as asexual cell division, because it is the type of division used by an organism to increase cell number, to grow, to repair, and to replace injured or aging cells
  56. sexual cell division, it produces gametes (sex cells such as eggs and sperm)
  57. sex cells such as eggs and sperm
  58. process by which the cytoplasm divides
  59. preceeding and following each mitosis a cell completes this stage. during this stage the cell prepares for the next division.
  60. The cellular activities of interphase and mitosis are combined to form the ____ ______
    cell cycle
  61. the most biochemically active stage of the entire cell cycle
  62. Interphase is separated into 3 sub phases
    G Growth phase 1, S(DNA synthesis phase) G2(growth phase 2)
  63. double stranded chromosome
  64. - no filamentous or rod-shaped chromosomes present. the chromosomes are uncoiled and very diffuse. - the nucleus may appear to contain small specks of chromsome material - a nucleus is obvious in each cell - one or more nucleoli are present in each nucleus as large darkly stained bodies
    characteristics to observe in a cell undergoing interphase
  65. - the chromosomes coil tightly and appear as filaments or rods
    - the chromosomes you see represent some degree of coiling
    - the nucleolus disappears
    - the nucleus and nuclear envelope disappear
    - a spindle composed of small microtubules appears
    - Centrioles present in some animal cells but not plant cells separate and move to opposite cell poles
    - in animal cells, astral rays of microtubules extend from centrioles in a direction opposite that of the spindle
    During prophase these events occur
  66. - Chromosomes are highly coiled and appear as rods
    - chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and line up in single line equidistant between the ends of the spindle.
    Metaphase - second stage of mitosis
  67. - The monads of the chromosomes separate at the centromere
    - the spindle fibers shorten and pull the monads towards opposite ends of the spindle. when the monads of the centromer separate, one monad from each chromosome is pulled to the end of the spindle; as a result, identical groups or monads are pulled to each of the spindle. the chromosomes are now single stranded again
    Anaphase the third stage of mitosis
  68. - the monads cluster around each end of the spindle
    - the monads uncoil and become more diffuse
    - the spindle disentegrates
    - the nucleus and nuclear envelope reappear
    - the nucleolus reappears
    - cytokinesis occurs
    Telophase the final stage of mitosis
  69. Animal cells constrict around the cell equator (from a cleavage furrow) until the cell splits into two new cells
    cytokinesis in animal cells
  70. begins in the interior of the cell in an area called the cell plate; the cell plate is visible as a dark line bisecting the spindle
    Cytokinesis in plant cells
  71. One set of chromosomes is called the ______ number
  72. two sets of chromosomes is known as the ________ number
  73. if the total number is 2 then those two chromosomes look alike. the look alike chromosomes are known as
  74. bears two sister chromatids
  75. microtubules that radiate from the centromere like rays from a star
    aster rays
  76. two centromeres plus the radiating microtubules are called
    meiotic spindle apparatus
  77. when chromosomes first appear they are long, thin, paired and in _______ that is very closely attached to one another
  78. when synapsed together the pair of homologs is called a _______ because they have four chromatids between them
  79. the exchange of segments between neighboring chromatids is called
    crossing over
  80. the paird homologs next move to the center of the nucleus to a place called the metaphase plate. there one of the homologs will lie on one side of the plate while the other lies on the opposite side of the plate. the homologs will be held in place by kinetochore microtubules which are only attached to one side of the cetromere facing athe poles.
    Metaphase I
  81. the kinetochore microtubules attached to the centromere of each homolog will begin to shorten and pull the homologs toward the poles. this causes half of the homologs to go to one pole and the other half to the opposite pole
    anaphase I
  82. Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm then takes place and 2 daughter cells, each with half of the original number of chromosomes are produced
    telophase I
  83. the second interphase does not involve any replication of chromosomes. it is only a transitory phase which may be missing some organisms
    Interphase II
  84. The second meiotic division has 4 phases just like meiosis I
    Meiosis II
  85. the chromosomes and spindle apparatus reappear as the nuclear envelope disappears. the chromosomes appear singly as dyads and there is no synapsis or crossing over observed at this time.
    Prophase II
  86. the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate, and each chromosome is held there by the kinetochore microtubules that extend from each side of the centromere toward the opposite poles
    Metaphase II
  87. The kinetochore microtubules shorten and each sister chromatid is withdrawn toward the centromere at the poles. thsi process reduces the dyads and monads
    Anaphase II
  88. Cytokinesis is visible. in animal cells furrowing takes place, but in plant cells, new cell walls are formed between the four cells. The chromosomes are also no longer visible during this stage of the cycle and new nuclear envelopes are formed
    Telophase II
  89. testis and ovary are known as this
  90. In the gonads are process called _____________ takes place during which diploid cells called spermatogonia in males and oogonia in females undergo meiotic changes which eventually generate gametes
  91. in male humans the process of gametogenesis is called
  92. In the female the process of egg generation is called _______
  93. _______ cleavage is when the entire egg divides into two daughter cells called _________
    Holoblastic, blastomeres
  94. when only part of the egg divides
    meroblastic cleavage
  95. the three cell layers of the gastrula are the
    ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
  96. The _______ is the cavity, whose opening is the blastopore
  97. the inner lining of the uterus is called the
  98. study of the passing of genetic information from parent to offspring
    Transmission genetics
  99. a form of gene such as the dominant T or the recessive t gene froms
  100. the expression of a set of genes (tall or short)
  101. the actual pair of genes that produces an expressed phenotype (TT, Tt, or tt)
  102. expressed alleles or phenotypes when homozygous (AA) or heterozygous (Aa)
  103. a gene that is unexpressed when paired with a dominant gene
  104. The physical location of a gene form on a chromosome (plural is loci)
  105. Paired alleles that are either dominant TT or recessive tt
  106. paired alleles that are unalike Tt
  107. three or more forms of a gene, any of which can occupy a specific locus
    multiple alleles

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