Card Set Information
Final exam study questions for Biology 201
What are the three domains?
What are the taxa between Domain and Class?
What are the taxa between Class and Species?
What is directional selection?
When conditions favour individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range.
What is disruptive selection?
When conditions favour individuals with phenotypes at both ends of the phenotypic range.
ex) birds with medium sized beaks are inefficient at cracking soft and hard seeds.
What is stabilizing selection?
When both extremes of a phenotypic range and infavourable.
ex) human babies who are light or heavy.
What are autotrophs?
Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide
What are heterotrophs?
Organisms that obtain carbon from organic molecules
What are phototrophs?
Organisms that obtain energy from light
What are chemotrophs?
Organisms that obtain energy from chemicals
What are photoautotrophs?
Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide and energy from light.
What are Chemoautotrophs?
Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide and energy from chemicals.
What are photoheterotrophs?
Organisms that obtain carbon from organic molecules and energy from light
What are chemoheterotrophs?
Organisms that obtain carbon from organic molecules and energy from chemicals
A sexual organism is one where what fuses to form what?
gametes fuse to form a zygote
In an asexual organism there is no fusion of _______?
What is an organ?
A group of tissues integrated to perform one or more functions in an organism
What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells that perform a particular task in an organism
What is cytosis?
The engulfing or expulsion of particles through the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
What is dermal tissue? What is it's function?
The outer surface tissue of plants.
Protects from injury
Exchanges materials with the environment
A is hypotonic to B. Which has the higher concentration of solute?
What are thrombocytes? What do they do?
Platelets. They carry enzymes that cause clotting.
What are leukocytes? What do they do?
White blood cells. They attack invaders in the body.
What are erythrocytes? What do they do?
Red blood cells. They transport oxygen.
What are fungal cell walls made of?
What are carrier proteins?
Proteins that allow larger molecules to pass across the plasma membrane. They are very specific and work through diffusion.
What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
What are the three main kingdoms?
What is crenulation?
When a blood cell in a hypertonic environment loses too much water and collapses
What can generally pass through the phopholipid bilayer?
What is meristem tissue? What does it do?
Embryonic tissue. Necessary for growth and repair.
What is vascular tissue? What does it do?
Composed of Xylem and Phloem. Forms tubules for the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
What is plasmolysis?
When a plant cell in a hypertonic environment loses too much water and collapses.
What is active transport?
The transport across the cell membrane of a substance against the concentration gradient. Used to maintain a different concentration from the surrounding environment. Requires energy (ATP)
What is cyclosis?
The cycling of cytoplams in a cell.
What is haemolysis?
When a cell in a hypotonic environment gains too much water and bursts.
A is hypertonic to B. Which has a higher concentration of solute?
What is ground tissue?
Neither vascular or dermal tissue, necessary for photosynthesis, food storage and mechanical support.
Pith, Cortex and Mesophyll are all ground tissue.
What are channel proteins?
Proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer that allow specific small molecules to pass through diffusion.
Define metabolic pathway:
A particular sequence of connected reactions
How does translation work?
Ribosomes form around tRNA "translating" the nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence know as a polypeptide. Occurs in the cytoplasm.