Andy's Bio 11

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thinkrussia
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147269
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Andy's Bio 11
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2012-04-12 14:03:27
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Andy's Bio 11
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  1. What is Myopia?
    nearsightedness (image focused in front of the retina)
  2. Wat is Creatine Phosphate?
    high energy storage conpaound found in vertebrates and in some invertebrates (i.e. echinoderms)

    Arginine Phosphate is similar and found in other invertebrates
  3. Botulism Toxin
    Prevents release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic membrane... paralysis
  4. Pancreas
    • both an endocrine and exocrine organ.
    • Exocrine function; cells secrete digestive enxymes into mall intestine

    • Endocrine function: small glandular structures called islets of Lanerhans are composed of alpha and beta cells
    • alpha cells produce glucagon and beta cells produce insulin
  5. What does the intestinal mucosa secrete?
    • -lipases
    • -aminopeptidases
    • -disaccharidases
  6. Mendel's 1st law
    • -genes exist as alleles
    • -2 alleles exist for each trait per organism
    • -only 1 fully expressed if differentiated
  7. negative reinforcement
    links the lack of behavior with reward
  8. cytotoxic T cell
    type of lymphocyte that when activated, kills infected cells, cancer cells, and transplanted cells.
  9. Expamle of a tree succession
    • Sun-loving gray birch and poplar
    • White Pine
    • maples and beeches (climax)
  10. Anterior Pituitary

    Which hormones?
    Regulated new hormaones?
    • Synthesizes: both direct and tropic hormones.
    • regulated by: releasing/ inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus
    • 6 hormones: FSH-follicle stimulating hormone
    • LH- lutinizing hormone
    • ACTH-adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • TSH-thyroid stimulating hormone
    • Prolactin-
    • GH -Growth hormone
  11. Cornea
    Transparent front layer of the eye that bends and focuses light through the pupil.
  12. Conjugation


    which bacteria can?
    • DNA transferred from a donor male (+) to female (-)
    • -only bacteria containing sex factors
    • (i.e. those with F factor are F+ cells)
    • During conjugation the F+ cell converts the F- cell to F+
  13. Constitutive Enzyme
    enzymes always being synthesized because they have defective repressors.
  14. What is the difference between Prokayotes and Eukaryotes?
    • P: Cell wall
    • no nucleus
    • 30s and 50s ribosomal subunits
    • No membrane bound organelles

    • E:
    • Cell wall only in fungi and plants
    • Nucleus
    • 40s and 60s ribosomal subunits
  15. Totipotency
    the ability of a cell to develop into any kind of differneciated cell.
  16. Phase contrast Microscopy
    uses a special type of light microscope that uses different refractive indexes so to contrast between cellular srtucture.
  17. Coenocytic
    many nuclei in a mass of protoplasm
  18. Mandel's 2nd law
    • (independent assortment)
    • -as long as two genes are on seperate chromosomes, they will assort independently during meosis
  19. Golgi Apparatus Function
    recieves vesicles from smooth ER; modifies them and repackages into vesicles sent to cell surface by exocytosis.
  20. Hfr cells
    cells that have a high freq. of recombination
  21. Respiration in Arthropods
    • has respiratory tubules called tracheae whose braches reach to alsmost every cell. These open to the surfaces through openings called spiracles
    • No carrier of O2
    • -allows insects to have open circulatory systems.
  22. what is the 4th part of the menstration cycle?
    If the ovum is not fertilized- corpus luteum atrophies and causes the endometrium to slough off giving rise to menses.
  23. Chief autotroph of the ocean
    the diatom, an algae
  24. Lichen
    • Mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae
    • Algae produces food
    • Fungus provides CO2 and nitrogenase waste for the algae
    • (which both need for photosynthesis and protein synthesis)
  25. Nekton
    active swimmers such as fish, sharks, or whales that feed on plankton and smaller fish.

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