Biology 201 (2)

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atasker
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147288
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Biology 201 (2)
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2012-04-12 15:27:56
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Bio biology
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Biology 201 final study questions
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  1. What type of cell is this?
    -No centrioles
    -No lysosomes
    -Generally no flagella
    -Cell Wall
    Plant Cell
  2. What can diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer?
    • Non-polar molecules (oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipids)
    • Small polar molecules (Water, ethanol)
  3. What is fermentation?
    • A metabolic pathway that changes pyruvate.
    • Energy is obtained from conversion of NADH to NAD
    • Allows glycolysis to continue in the absence of oxygen
  4. What is glycolysis?
    A metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. Occurs in the cytosol. Energy released is used to convert ADP to ATP and NAD to NADH
  5. What is the output of the citric acid cycle in terms of energy?
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
    • 1 ATP
  6. Where does the Citric Acid Cycle take place?
    In the Mitochondria
  7. How many ATP are produced from one molecule of glucose?
    36
  8. What allows transcription to occur?
    RNA polymerase
  9. What does transfer RNA do?
    Carries amino acids to ribosomes
  10. In Prophase I what is most evident?
    Chromosomes condense and are found in homologous pairs.
  11. Define enzyme.
    A protein that facilitates a specific chemical reaction.
  12. What is DNA made of?
    A sugar-phosphate backbone with nucleic acid bases.
  13. Define metabolism
    All chemical reactions taking place in an organism
  14. What is pleiotropy?
    When a genotype at a single locus influences more than one trait.
  15. What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    • Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus.
    • Prokaryotic cells have no cytoskeleton
    • Cell division for prokaryotic cells is by binary fission.
  16. What are the three steps of transcription?
    • Initiation
    • Elongation
    • Termination
  17. What is evident in metaphase I?
    Homologous pairs line up
  18. When does crossing over occur?
    Prophase I
  19. What is ATP?
    Adenosine Triphosphate. Used to power the cell.
  20. How does RNA differ from DNA?
    • typically single-stranded
    • different sugar
    • Composed of guanine, adenine, cytosine and URACIL (not thymine)
  21. What is transcription?
    copying a sequence from DNA onto RNA
  22. What happens in Anaphase I?
    Whole chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends.
  23. What is a seed?
    A plant embryo with food in a protective case
  24. What is oxidative phosphorylation?
    • Generates an H+ gradient.
    • Converts ADP to ATP
  25. What does mRNA do?
    Carries protein blueprint from DNA to ribosomes.
  26. What type of cell is this?
    -No cell wall
    -No plasmodesmata
    -No Chloroplasts
    -No central vacuole
    Animal Cell
  27. What are the four classes of macromolecules?
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
  28. What type of cell is this?
    -No centrioles
    -No chloroplasts
    -Cell wall
    -Pores between cells
    Fungal
  29. What type of cell is this?
    -No true nucleues
    -Generally no organelles
    -Cell wall
    Bacterial
  30. Meiosis II results in what?
    • 4 haploid cells(spermatogenesis)
    • 1 haploid ova (oogenesis
  31. What is a zygote?
    A fertilized egg (diploid)
  32. What is linkage?
    Relates to crossing over; the closer loci are to each other, the more likely their traits are to be inherited together
  33. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root xylem in centre
    -vascular cambium
    -flowerparts in fours/five or multiples
    Dicot
  34. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root vascular cylinder relatively small
    -leaf with branched veins
    -stem vascular bundles in ring
    Dicot
  35. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root xylem in ring
    -stem vascular bundles scattered
    -flower parts in threes or multiples
    Monocot
  36. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root vascular cylinder relatively large
    -no vascular cambium
    -leaf with parallel veins
    Monocot
  37. What is mycelium?
    The body of the fungus, made up of hyphae
  38. What is a basidiocarp?
    The fruiting body of a club fungus
  39. What is a zygosporangium?
    A multinucleate structure in zygomycete fungi where meiosis occurs
  40. What is homeostasis?
    Steady-state condition of the body.
  41. What are the four basic animal tissue types?
    • Epithelial (surface/covering)
    • Connective tissue (cells in a matrix)
    • Muscle tissue (contracting)
    • Nerve tissue (conducting)
  42. What are the three shapes of epithelial tissue?
    • Squamous
    • Columnar
    • Cuboidal
  43. Give three examples of connective tissue
    • blood
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • adipose tissue
    • fibrous connective tissue (tendons, ligaments)
    • loose connective tissue
  44. What does adipose tissue do?
    Pads and insulates body, stores fuel (as fat)
  45. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  46. Which muscle tissue is responsible for voluntary movements?
    Skeletal
  47. What is the integumentary system?
    The outer covering of a mammal's body including hair, skin and nails, claws or hooves

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