lab exam 6

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lab exam 6
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2012-04-12 17:28:47
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bio 130 lab exam
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  1. lack a well-defined nucleus
    chromosome structure is different
    prokaryotic
  2. get their food from another organism
    heterotrophic
  3. live by decaying dead organisms
    saprophytes
  4. obtain nutrition from living plants or animals
    parasites
  5. obtain nutrition from living plants or animals and cause disease in their host
    pathogens
  6. able to make their own food
    autotrophic
  7. special procedures that prevent the escape of organisms
    prevent contaiminating an established culture
    aseptic technique
  8. what charge is bacterial cytoplasm
    negatively charged
  9. spherical bacterium
    coccus
  10. rod-shaped bacterium
    bacillus
  11. rigid sprial-shaped bacterium
    spirillium
  12. staining procedure
    example of a differential stain
    gram stain
  13. bacteria with a thick wall retain purple stain crystal violet are termed
    gram positive
  14. bacteria with a tin cell wall do not retain crystal violet stain
    instead safranin are termed
    gram negative
  15. gummy layer or slime layer that surrounds many bacteria
    capsule
  16. capsule is made from
    polysaccharides
  17. capsules aid in:
    • * attachment to surfaces
    • * protect against desiccation
    • * prevents engulfment
  18. a survival structure produced by a few genera of bacteria
    endospore
  19. When do endospores form
    conditions become unfavorable
  20. thin, helical, hair like filaments that extend outward from the bacterial cell wall
    flagella
  21. what do bacteria need to grow?
    • favorable temperature
    • water
    • food
  22. food and water base for cultured microorganisms
    growth medium
  23. solid media are based on a polymer extracted from red algae
    agar
  24. pigment production
    chromogenesis
  25. tumor-like abnormalities on plants
    galls
  26. how do galls form?
    • infection by pathogens
    • bacteria, viruses and fungi
  27. a modified strain made by removing the tumor-inducing genes from the plasmid and then substitute genes from a different source
    agrobacterium
  28. absorptive nutrition and reproduce by spores
    eukaryotic heterotrophs
  29. for dispersal and/or dormant survival
    spores
  30. produced by meiosis
    sexual
  31. produced by mitosis
    asexual
  32. microscopic tubes of protoplasm constrained by a cell wall
    hyphae
  33. resulting network of hyphae
    mycelium
  34. hyphae are continuous, without crosswalls
    coenocytic or aseptate
  35. hyphae separated at regular intervals with cross-walls
    septa
  36. have cell walls made of chitin
    nuclei are haploid
    tru fungi
  37. list the 5 phyla of fungi
    • chytridiomycota
    • zygomycota
    • ascomycota
    • basidiomycota
    • deuteromycota
  38. saprotrophs in aquatic environments
    parasites of algae
    serious plant pathogens
    breakdown of plant material
    pathogens of amphibians
    Chytrids
  39. have a cell wall composed of chitin
    lack a true mycelium
    typically unicellular
    branched chains of cells
    chytrids
  40. this anchors chytrids to their food
    rhizoids
  41. the motile spore chytrids produce
    zoospore
  42. *saprotrophs
    opportunistic plant parasites
    specialized animal parasites
    obligate parasites of other zygote fungi
    Zygote fungi
  43. where are zygote fungi common?
    soil and air
  44. intimate mutually-beneficial association with plant roots
    mycorrhiza
  45. Zygomycota are typically _________ that is coencoytic
    mycelial
  46. zygote fungi sexual resting spore
    zygospore
  47. asexual spores are produced inside
    sporangia
  48. commonly called black bread mold
    rhizopus
  49. the hyphae that connect the sprangiophores are called
    stolons
  50. two different strains of mycelia are needed in order for sexual reporduction to occur
    heterothallic
  51. organisms that have no restrictions of different strains are called
    hmothallic
  52. strands of the + and - strains send out lateral projections
    progametangia
  53. progametangia become walled off and are then termed
    gametangia
  54. commonly found on dung of grazing animals
    pilobolus
  55. mycelium forms a basal swelling called
    trophocyst
  56. ascomycota
    sac fungi
  57. name the fungi with these functions:
    * food spoilage
    *destruction of paper, fabrics and wood
    * dutch elm disease, apple scab, chestnut blight
    * human pathogens
    * yeasts
    * antibiotics
    sac fungi
  58. fungi that are single-celled
    yeasts
  59. hyphae in sac fungi are
    septate
  60. asexual spores of sac fungi and are non-motile
    *also never produced inside a sporangium
    conidia
  61. composed of cells that contain one nucleus from each parent
    dikaryotic hyphae
  62. dikaryotic hyphae develop into membrane sac called:
    asci
  63. fusion of nuclei
    karyogamy
  64. fusion of nuclei and meiosis ocur in asci, leads to production of
    ascospores
  65. asci are found in layers in/on fruiting body termed
    ascocarp
  66. yellow ascocarp called
    cleistothecium
  67. blue-gray conidia at the end of hypha
    conidiophore
  68. have an opening such as a pore or slit which allows the spores to escape
    perithecium
  69. how many ascospores does each ascus contain:
    8
  70. non-hybrid perithecia ascospore color scheme
    all the same
  71. hybrid perithecia ascospore color scheme
    • 4 dark-green
    • 4 tan
  72. crossover perithecia color scheme
    alternates in groups of two
  73. cup or disc-shaped furiting bodies are called
    apothecia
  74. layer of asci
    hymenium
  75. asci and ascospores line the pits of the cap
    morels
  76. simple single cells that do not produce a mycelium or ascocarps
    yeasts
  77. most yeasts reproduce asexually by a process called
    • budding
    • some by fission
  78. List the Zygote Fungi
    • Rhizopus
    • Pilobolus
  79. List the Sac Fungi
    • 1. Cleistothecium-producing fungi
    • - Blue Mold
    • - Powdery Mildews
    • 2. Perithecium-Producing Fungi
    • 3. Apothecium-Producing Fungi
    • - Peziza: cup fungus
    • - Morels
    • 4. Non-Ascocarp Producing Sac Fungi- The Yeasts
    • - Saccharomyces
    • - Schizosaccharomyces
  80. List the Club Fungi
    • 1. Higher Club Fungi
    • - Mycelium
    • - Basidiocarp
    • 2. Lower Club Fungi
    • - Rust
    • - Smuts
  81. List the Deuteromycetes
    • 1. Penicillium
    • 2. Alternaria
  82. List the Fungus-like organisms
    • 1. Oomycota
    • - saprolegnia
    • - phytophthora
    • 2. Myxomycota
    • - Plasmodium
    • - fruiting bodies
  83. two genetically distinct haploid nuclei per cell
    dikaryotic condition
  84. dikaryotic hyphae usually have structures called
    clamp connections
  85. the structure that plays a role in assorting muclei to the daughter cells after mitosis
    clamp connections
  86. the site of karyogamy and meiosis
    basidium
  87. produced and forcibly ejected from a club shaped cell
    basidiospores and basidium
  88. types of basidiocarps
    • agaricus
    • amanita
    • coral fungi
    • bird's nest
    • boletes
    • bracket fungi
    • fairy ring mushrooms
    • inky caps and shaggy manes
    • jelly fungi
    • Puffballs and earthstars
    • Stinkhorns
  89. basiocarp
    *white gills and white spores
    * annulus and volva
    amanita
  90. basidiocarp
    *pink gills turn brown at maturity
    * annulus
    agaricus
  91. basidiocarp
    *black spores
    * once used for ink
    inky caps and shaggy manes
  92. basidiocarp
    * gills widely spaced
    * thin stalk
    * no annulus or volva
    * spores are white
    * knob in center of cap
    Fairy ring mushrooms
  93. basidiocarp
    *no gills, pores under cap
    boletes
  94. basidiocarp
    * polypores
    * tough and woody
    * dead or dying trees
    bracket fungi
  95. spores are produced inside tiny tubes that open to the surface as pores
    polypores
  96. basidiocarp
    * spores develop inside
    * light in color
    * single wall layer
    puffballs and earthstars
  97. basidiocarp
    * slimy spore mass
    * insects disseminate the spores
    Stinkhorns
  98. basidiocarps
    * eggs with thousands of spores
    bird's nest
  99. basidiocarp
    * hymenium and pores cover outside surface of body
    * colorful branching nature
    coral fungi
  100. basidiocarps
    * gelatinous matrix
    * dead tree branches
    jelly fungi
  101. what are rusts and smuts different from club fungi?
    • lack basidiocarps
    • basidia do not have club shape
  102. obligate plant parasites that cause extensive damage on hosts
    rusts
  103. how many spores and hosts is wheat rust associated with?
    5 kinds of spores and 2 different hosts
  104. a rust that infects two different hosts is termed
    heteroecious
  105. one-host rusts are referred to as
    autoecious
  106. basidiospores germinate and develop
    monokaryotic mycelium
  107. small falsk-shaped structures on the upper leaf surface
    spermagonia
  108. spermagonia produce
    spermatia
  109. the 4 stages of wheat rust
    • 1. barberry infection
    • 2. red rust stage
    • 3. black rust stage
    • 4. basidiospores
  110. pustules produce rusty-colored
    uredospores
  111. uredia darken to black
    telia
  112. teliospore germinate to produce
    basidium

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