chapter 23

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TOYOMAMA0118
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147315
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chapter 23
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2012-04-12 18:51:14
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The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750–1914
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  1. Protoindustrialization refers to
    the employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.
  2. What was a cause of the American Revolution?
    restriction on free movement into frontier areas
  3. What was a cause of the French Revolution?
    the middle class demand for greater political representation
  4. Which of the following was not a liberal gain confirmed by Napolean Bonaparte?

    A. legal equality for men
    B. religious freedom
    C. new law codes
    D. universal manhood suffrage
    E. centralized system of secondary schools and universities
    D. universal manhood suffrage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The radical phase of the French Revolution led to...
    • -abolishment of slavery in France's colonies, later reversed. -introduction of the metric system of weights and measures. -extension of the revolution to warfare in the Low Countries, Italy, and Germany.
    • -execution of the king.
  6. In what year did the final phase of the French revolution begin?
    1799
  7. The meeting of the victorious powers at Vienna in 1815 resulted in...
    conservative attempts to restore the principle of monarchy.
  8. "The chief goal of any constitution should be to secure the vote for all men, regardless of class or wealth."

    Who would most likely say this?
    radicals
  9. Belgium became an independent nation for the first time as a result of a revolution in
    1830
  10. Middle class women, traditionally active partners to merchants,
    withdrew from formal jobs to new roles in caring for children and the home.
  11. The British Chartists were primarily ______ and ________ who sought _________ ________ ____________.
    artisans and workers....universal male suffrage
  12. Revolutions of 1814:
    Nationalist agitation failed, as the armies of Prussia and Austria-Hungary restored the political status quo.
  13. What scientist was responsible for the discovery of germs?
    Louis Pasteur
  14. General prosperity of Europeans by 1900:
    By 1900 nearly two-thirds of the European population lived above the subsistence level.
  15. Peasants improved their conditions in all the following ways by...
    • -organized cooperatives.
    • -sought education and new skills.
    • -using market conditions to their own benefit.
    • -specialized in cash crops.
  16. One of the reforms that conservative politicians were most willing to enact in order to gain the support of both liberals and the working class was...
    universal manhood suffrage.
  17. Bismark's united Germany was/had...
    • -a bicameral national parliament
    • -a large military structure
    • -universal manhood suffrage
  18. What Western intellectual would have endorsed the following statement? "History is shaped by the available means of production and who controlled them leading to inevitable class conflict."
    Karl Marx
  19. In what nation did socialism produce the strongest political party?
    Germany
  20. Napoleon confirmed some of the developments of the French Revolution, including _________ and ______ under the __________ _____ ______.
    religious freedom....equality......Napoleonic law codes
  21. Otto von Bismarck was responsible for introducing ________ ______ _________ into Germany, with a system that distributed _____ _________ according to _______.
    universal male suffrage.......voting strength....wealth.
  22. It was the __________ that most clearly set in motion the political restructuring of Western Europe.
    French Revolution
  23. During the radical stage of the revolution, the French King __________ was executed.
    Louis XVI
  24. The political objectives of the early phases of the French Revolution were declared in the __________.
    Declaration of the Rights of Man
  25. The king was decapitated on the __________, a new device introduced to provide more humane executions.
    guillotine
  26. Thousands of people were executed during the __________, the radical phase of the revolution.
    Reign of Terror
  27. __________ focused primarily on issues of political structure, as they sought ways to limit state interference in individual life.
    Liberals
  28. __________ wanted wider voting rights and, in some cases, outright democracy.
    Radicals
  29. In Britain the __________ gave the parliamentary vote to most members of the middle class.
    Reform Bill of 1832
  30. The substantial failure of the revolutions of __________ drew the revolutionary era in Europe to a close.
    1848
  31. The discovery of germs by the French researcher __________ led to more conscientious sanitary regulations.
    Louis Pasteur
  32. A British Conservative leader, __________, took the initiative in 1867 of granting the vote to working-class males.
    Benjamin Disraeli
  33. Count __________ in the Italian state of Piedmont began to support industrial development and extend the powers of parliament to please liberal forces.
    Camillo di Cavour
  34. In Prussia a new prime minister, __________, began to work with a parliament and extend the vote to all adult males.
    Otto von Bismarck
  35. Italy developed a system called __________ in which parliamentary deputies were transformed once in Rome to a single-minded pursuit of political office and support of the status quo.
    trasformismo
  36. __________ saw socialism as the final phase of an inexorable march of history shaped by the available means of production and who controlled them.
    Karl Marx
  37. A movement called __________ arose, which argued that Marx's revolutionary vision was wrong, because socialism could be achieved through peaceful means.
    revisionism
  38. The great advance in theoretical science came in the field of biology, with the evolutionary theory of __________.
    Charles Darwin
  39. After 1900 the theory of relativity of __________ formalized the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles.
    Albert Einstein
  40. The Viennese physician __________ began to develop his theories of the workings of the human unconscious.
    Sigmund Freud
  41. __________ held that emotion and impression, not reason and generalization, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature itself.
    Romanticism
  42. American __________ argues that contact with Western Europe was incidental to the larger development of the United States on its own terms.
    exceptionalism
  43. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the __________.
    Triple Alliance
  44. Britain, Russia, and France constituted the __________.
    Triple Entente
  45. Sigmund Freud:
    Developed theories of the workings of the _______ __________ and argued that behavior is determined by ______
    human subconscious......impulses
  46. Louis XVI:
    Bourbon monarch of France who was _________ during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
    executed
  47. Revisionism:
    Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed _______ revolutionary doctrine and believed social success could be achieved gradually through _______ ________
    Marxist.....political institutions.
  48. Conservatives:
    originated in ________ Europe in the ____th century.
    Opposed __________ goals.
    Advocated _________ of ________ and defense of _____.
    • originated in Western Europe in the 19th centruy.
    • Opposed revolutionart goals.
    • Advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church.
  49. Socialism:
    Political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century.
    Urged an attack on ______ in the name of ________.
    Wanted ______ control of means of ________, end to ________ exploitation of the working man.
    • attack on private property in the name of equality.
    • wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitations of the working man.
  50. Nationalism:
    Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe.
    Urged importance of ________ _______.
    Valued a collective identity based on _______, ______, or _____ ______.
    • Urged importance of national unity.
    • Valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
  51. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen:
    Adopted during the liberal phase of the ________ _________ (_____).
    Stated the fundamental _________ of all French citizens.
    Later became a political source for other liberal movements.
    • French Revolution (1789).
    • Stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens.
  52. Greek Revolution:
    Rebellion in Greece against the ________ _______ in _____.
    Key step in gradually dismantling the ___________ _______ in the Balkans.
    Ottoman Empire.....Ottoman Empire.
  53. Triple Entente:
    Alliance among _____, _______, and ______ at the outset of the 20th century.
    Part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
    Britain, Russia, and France.
  54. Industrial Revolution:
    Series of changes in economy of _______ nations between _______ and the 20th century.
    Stimulated by rapid _______ ________, increase in __________ _________, ___________ revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of _________.
    In essence involved __________ change and the application of ________ to the process of _________.
    Series of changes in economy of Western nations between 1740 and the 20th century. Stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity, commercial revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of transportation. In essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production.
  55. Transformismo:
    Political system in late 19th-century _________ that promoted alliance of __________ and _______.
    Parlimentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.
    Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals.
  56. Triple Alliance:
    Alliance among ________, _________-________, and ______ at the end of the 19th century.
    Part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to ______ ______.
    Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy....World War I.
  57. Karl Marx:
    German socialist of the mid-19th century.
    Blasted earlier socialist movement as ________.
    Saw history as defined by class struggle between _______ _____ ___ _______ and those ______ the means of ______.
    Preached necessity of _________ ____________ to create __________ ___________.
    German socialist of the mid-19th century.Blasted earlier socialist movement as Utopian .Saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production. Preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
  58. Congress of Vienna:
    Meeting in the aftermath of ________ ____ (____) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
    Napoleonic Wars (1815)
  59. American Civil War:
    Fought from _______ to _______.
    First application of __________ __________ to warfare.
    Resulted in _________ of ________ in the US and reunifcation of North and South.
    Fought from 1861 to 1865. First application of Industrial Revolution to warfare. Resulted in abolition of slavery in the US and reunifcation of North and South.
  60. Liberal:
    Political viewpoints with origins in _______ Europe during the 19th century.
    Stressed ________ state interference in individual life, _____________ of propertied people in government, urged importance of ____________ rule and ___________.
    Political viewpoints with origins in western Europe during the 19th century. Stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government, urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
  61. Otto von Bismark:
    Conservative prime minister of _______.
    Architect of German _______ under Purssian king in 1870.
    Utilized _________ ________ to attract support for conservative causes.
    Conservative prime minister of Prussia. Architect of German unification under Purssian king in 1870. Utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes.
  62. Reform Bill of 1832:
    Legislation passed in ______ _______ that extended the vote to most members of the ______ class.
    Failed to produce _________ in Britain.
    Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class. Failed to produce democracy in Britain.
  63. French Revolution:
    Revolution in France between _____ and _____.
    Resulted in overthrow of Bourbon ______ and ____ _______.
    Ended with establishment of ______ _____ under _______ ________.
    Sources of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
    Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800. Resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes. Ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte. Sources of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.

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