Chapter 15

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Chapter 15
2011-02-21 18:51:37
Holes Anatomy Physiology Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular system
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  1. specialized tissue in the wall of the right atrium the initiates cardiac cycles; the pacemaker
    sinoatrial node/ SA node
  2. specialized mass of cardiac muscle fibers in the interatrial septum of the heart
    atrioventricular node/ AV node
  3. group of specialized fibers that conducts impulses from the atrioventricular node to the Purkinje fibers in the ventricular muscle of the heart
    atrioventricular bundle
  4. specialized muscle fibers that conduct the cardiac impulse from the AV bundle into the ventricular wall
    Purkinje fibers
  5. is a recording of the electrical changes in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle
    electrocardiogram ECG
  6. corresponding to depolarization of the atrial fibers that will lead to contraction of the atria
  7. due to depolarization of the ventricular fibers just prior to the contraction of the ventricular walls
  8. an irregular heartbeat
  9. an abnormally slow heart rate or pulse rate
  10. abnormally rapid heartbeat
  11. the normal beating of the heart, as measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG)
    sinus rhythm
  12. is controlled by electrical impulses from the sino-atrial and antrioventriclar nodes
    cardiac cycle
  13. sympathetic branches of the ________ _________ ________ innervate smooth muscle in artery and arteriole walls
    autonomic nervous system
  14. baroreceptor reflexes of the medulla oblongata maintain balance between inhibitory effects of the parasympathetic fibers
    cardiac control center
  15. excess potassium ions alter the usual polarized state of the cardiac muscle fibers
  16. if the potassium concentration drops below normal that heart may develop a potentially life threatening abnormal rhythm
  17. excess calcium ions increases heart action, risking that the heart will undergo a prolonged contraction
  18. low calcium concentration depresses heart action because these ions help initiate muscle contraction
  19. vessel that transports blood from the heart
  20. small branch of an artery that communicates with a capillary network
  21. a small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule
  22. vessel that carries blood from capillaries to a vein
  23. vessel taht carries blood toward the heart
  24. decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel
  25. increase in the diameter of a blood vessel
  26. hydrostatic pressure forces molecules through a membrane
  27. How are gases and nutrients exchanged in the capillaries?
    • diffusion
    • filtration
    • osmosis
  28. What helps to maintain the osmotic pressure in the capillaries?
    plasma proteins
  29. Which artery is used to determine the pulse?
    radial artery
  30. volume of blood the ventricle discharges with each heartbeat
    stroke volume
  31. the volume of blood per minute that the heart pumps
    cardiac output
  32. How is cardiac output calculated?
    multiply stroke colume in mL by the heartrate in beats per minute
  33. How does blood volume affect blood pressure?
    any change in blood volume will directly alter blood pressure
  34. the sum of the formed elements and plasma volumes in the vascular system
    blood volume

    5 liters
  35. friction between blood and the walls of the blood vessels produces a force calls
    peripheral resistance
  36. tendency for a fluid to resist flowing due to the internal friction of its molecules
  37. amount of blood returning to the ventircles
    venous return
  38. How is blood pressure controlled?
    by mechanisms that regulate cardiac output and peripheral resistance
  39. the relationship between fiber length due to stretching of the cardiac muscle cell just before contraction and force of contraction is called
    Starling Law
  40. What is the function of the baroreceptor?
    can detect changes in blood pressure
  41. elevated blood pressure
  42. low blood pressure
  43. How is blood moved through the veins?
    • skeletal muscle contraction
    • breathing movements
    • vasoconstriction of veins
  44. prevent blood from flowing back and pooling in the lower extremities due to the effects of gravity
    venous valves
  45. the pressure in the right atrium from the veins draining into it
    central venous pressure
  46. system of blood vessels that carries blood between the heart and the lungs
    pulmonary circut
  47. vessels that conduct blood between the heart and all body tissues except the lungs
    systemic circuit
  48. What vessels arise from the aortic arch?
    • brachiocephalic arch
    • common carotid artery
    • left subclavian artery
  49. What vessels branch from the thoracic aorta?
    • bronchial, pericardial, and esophageal arteries
    • mediastinal arteries
    • posterior intercostal arteries
  50. What vessels branch from the abdominal aorta?
    • celiac artery
    • phrenic arteries
    • superior mesenteric
    • supraenal arteries
    • renal arteries
    • gonadal arteries
    • inferior mesenteric artery
    • lumbar arteries
    • middle sacral artery
  51. Which veins return blood to the right atrium?
    superior and inferior vena cava
  52. Describe what happens to the CVS during the aging process
    incidence of disease of the heart and blood vessels increases with age
  53. severe chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply) of the heart muscle
    angina pectoris
  54. inherited overgrowth of the heart muscle
    familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  55. in which the heart can no longer pump enough blood to the rest of the body
    congestive heart failure CHF