chapter 25

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chapter 25
2012-04-12 19:53:07

The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830–1920
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  1. In what way was Latin America different than the other regions that remained outside the direct control of Western imperialism?
    During the century of imperialism, Latin America cast off previous colonial controls through revolution.
  2. Which event did the Creole elite reject as a model of revolution because of its threat to the social hierarchy?
    the Haitian Revolution
  3. Toussaint L'Overture led the rebellion...
    on the island of St. Domingue.
  4. What title was taken by the Creole military commander Augustin de Iturbide in Mexico?
  5. Who was the leader of the independence movement in northern South America?
    Simon Bolivar
  6. How was the experience of the Napoleonic Wars different for Portugal than Spain?
    The entire royal family fled from the French to Brazil and established their capital there.
  7. In which area did slavery continue to exist after 1854?
  8. State something accurate about the political organization of Latin America to 1850.
    Most attempts at consolidation and union failed.
  9. Caudillos were
    rural police forces that controlled much of Mexico.
  10. What concept was associated with Latin American Liberal groups?
    rights of individuals and belief in private competition
  11. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823
    was proclaimed by the United States to keep European nations out of Latin America, but enforced by the British navy.
  12. What factors were account for the economic stagnation in Latin America from 1820 to 1850?
    • -the lack of capital for investment in industry
    • -the lack of a transportation network and port facilities
    • -the slow recovery of the mining sector after the wars of independence
    • -the low populations of the Latin American countries
  13. Describe of the politicians who led Liberal governments in the post-1860 Latin America accurately.
    They represented a new generation of politicians who had matured after independence.
  14. Benito Juarez was...
    an Indian who led La Reforma.
  15. In 1840 coffee became a major export product of
  16. Prior to the 1830s, the artistic and architectural style preferred in Latin America was
  17. Which groups benefited in the social and political climate of post-1850 Latin America?
    large landholders and urban businessmen
  18. What beliefs are associated with the concept of "modernization" or "westernization"?
    • As the process occurred, there would be a natural movement toward more democratic forms of government and popular participation.
    • Change would take place through radical or revolutionary transitions rather than gradually.
    • The more industrialized and urbanized any society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were transformed.
    • Development was a matter of increasing per capita production in any society.
  19. What sector of the Latin American economy fueled the boom of the post-1880 period?
    export of raw materials
  20. In 1808 Napoleon placed the king of Spain and his son under arrest and forced them to abdicate in favor of his __________.
  21. In Mexico the independence conspiracy among leading creoles moved Father __________ to turn to the Indians and mestizos of his region in 1810.
    Miguel de Hidalgo
  22. __________, a creole officer at the head of the army sent to crush the independence movement in Mexico, instead joined forces with them and occupied Mexico City in 1821.
    Augustin de Iturbide
  23. In 1822 Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador united into a new nation called __________.
    Gran Colombia
  24. In Buenos Aires, __________ had emerged as the military commander willing to speak and act for independence.
    Jose de San Martin
  25. Peru and Bolivia were united between 1829 and 1839 under the mestizo general __________.
    Andres Santa Cruz
  26. The mobilization of large armies with loyalties to regional commanders led to the rise of __________, independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies.
  27. A struggle often developed between __________ who wanted to create strong national governments with broad powers and federalists, who wanted policies to be set by regional governments.
  28. Following defeat in the Mexican American War, Mexico was forced to sign the disadvantageous Treaty of __________.
  29. One of the most influential opponents of Santa Ana following the Mexican American War was __________, a humble Indian who had received a legal education.
    Benito Juarez
  30. The Liberal revolt against Santa Ana's rule, called __________, began in 1854.
    a Reforma
  31. At French urging __________, an Austrian Archduke, was convinced to take the throne of Mexico in 1862.
    Maximilian von Hapsburg
  32. By 1862, in a movement resembling La Reforma in Mexico, the provinces surrounding the Rio de la Plata were united in a unified nation called the __________.
    Argentine Republic
  33. President __________ of Argentina initiated a wide series of political reforms and economic measures critical of the rule of the caudillos.
    Domingo Sarmiento
  34. In the provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, coffee estates or __________ began to spread toward the interior as new lands were opened.
  35. __________ theory held out the promise that any society could move toward a brighter future by essentially following the path taken earlier by the industrialization of Western Europe.
  36. In 1876 __________, one of Juarez's generals, was elected president and proceeded to dominate Mexican politics for 35 years.
    Porfirio Diaz
  37. The outbreak of the __________ War in 1898 opened the door to direct U.S. involvement in the Caribbean.
    Spanish American
  38. The __________, obtained in return for support of an independence movement, was a remarkable engineering feat and a fitting symbol of the technological and industrial strength of the United States.
    Panama Canal