chapter 26

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chapter 26
2012-04-12 20:37:43

Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China
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  1. In the eighteenth century, unlike the Manchu dynasty of China, the Ottoman Empire
    was in full retreat
  2. State something concerning the impact of the West on other civilizations.
    By the end of the nineteenth century, the West was the primary cause of the destruction of other global civilizations.
  3. Which European power seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early decades of the eighteenth century?
  4. In the later 1700s, Russia
    became the main threat to the Ottoman's survival.
  5. Which state first successfully achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire?
  6. Why did the British attempt to prop up the Ottoman Empire in the face of other European nations' desire to destroy it?
    Britain feared that the Russians would successfully establish a port on the Mediterranean.
  7. The Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II..
    successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence.
  8. In what year was the revised constitution introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms?
  9. The Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid
    attempted to roll back the Tanzimat reforms and restore an absolute monarchy.
  10. The Society for Union and Progress..
    led the rebellion that overthrew Sultan Abdul Hamid.
  11. The Napoleonic invasion of 1798 signaled the demise of whose rule in Egypt?
    the Mamluks
  12. In1811, which ruler had succeeded in establishing his dominance over Egypt?
    Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the Ottoman army
  13. Describe the relationship between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Muhammad Ali.
    Muhammad Ali invaded Syria and thus flouted the authority of the Ottoman Empire.
  14. Ahmad Orabi was...
    the Egyptian army officer who led a revolt against the Khedival government in 1882.
  15. What nation intervened militarily in Egyptian affairs in 1882?
  16. The Mahdist revolt in the Sudan was crushed at what battle?
  17. State something concerning the Manchu government.
    Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate number of the highest political positions, there were few limits on Chinese promotions within the imperial bureaucracy.
  18. What was the impact of the British opium trade on China?
    Within years China's favorable balance of trade was reversed and silver began to flow out of the country.
  19. What rebellion was clandestinely supported by the Qing imperial court under Cixi?
    the Boxer rebellion
  20. Sultan __________ lost his throne to a Janissary revolt in 1807.
    Selim III
  21. Sultan __________ slaughtered the Janissaries as well as their families and religious allies in 1826.
    Mahmud II
  22. The __________ reforms between 1839 and 1876 reorganized education, established railways and telegraph systems, and resulted in a constitution based on European prototypes.
  23. The Ottoman Sultan __________ attempted to return to despotic absolutism during his long reign from 1878 to 1908.
    Abdul Hamid
  24. The membership of the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress was also known as the __________.
    Young Turks
  25. __________, the head of the coalition of Mamluk households that shared power in Egypt at the time of Napoleon's arrival, dismissed the invader as insignificant.
  26. A young officer of Albanian origins, __________, relied upon Western methods to put together the most effective fighting force in the Middle East.
    Muhammad Ali
  27. Intermarrying with Turkish families, Muhammad Ali's descendants provided a succession of rulers in Egypt known as __________.
  28. The completion of the __________ Canal in 1869 shortened the distance by sea between Europe and Asia and allowed steamboats to replace sailing vessels.
  29. In the summer of 1882 __________ led a revolt of Egyptian against the Khedival government.
    Ahmad Orabi
  30. Egyptian authority in the Sudan was concentrated in the administrative center of __________.
  31. Muhammad Achmad, known to his followers as the __________, proclaimed a revolt in the Sudan against both the Egyptian heretics and British infidels.
  32. Mahdists found a suitable successor to Muhammad Achmad in __________.
    Khalifa Abdallahi
  33. At the battle of __________ in 1898 the bulk of the Mahdist cavalry and its commander were slaughtered.
  34. A local leader named __________ was the architect of unity among the Manchu tribes.
  35. __________, a significant Confucian scholar in his own right, employed thousands of scholars to compile a great encyclopedia of Chinese learning.
  36. Overseas trading links gave rise to a wealthy new group of merchants, the __________, who specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast.
  37. In the late 1830s the Chinese emperor sent one of his most distinguished officials, __________, to stamp out the opium trade.
    Lin Zexu
  38. The __________ War broke out between Britain and China in late 1839 resulting in a resounding defeat of the Chinese fleet.
  39. Led by a mentally unstable, semi-Christian prophet named Hong Xiuquan, the __________ rebellion exacerbated stresses within Chinese society.
  40. The last decades of the Manchu dynasty were dominated by the ultra-conservative dowager empress __________.
  41. The __________ rebellion broke out in 1898 and was only put down through the intervention of imperialist powers in 1901.
  42. In 1912 the last of emperor of China, a small boy named __________, was deposed.