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Which region defied the common pattern of increasing Western domination in the nineteenth century?
Russia and Japan
State something accurate concerning the development of Russia and Japan prior to 1914.
Both Russia and Japan had programs of industrialization underway by 1914, but were unable to rival the industrial might of the West.
The Stolypin reforms
granted greater freedom to the peasantry from redemption payments.
State something concerning Russia's territorial expansion.
- -Russia supported nationalist movements in the Balkans. -Russia continued to press for territorial acquisitions in the Ottoman Empire.
- -No massive acquisitions marked the early nineteenth century.
The Crimean War...
was won by Western nations because of industrial advantages over Russia.
What were the considerations in the reform of serfdom?
- -Peasant uprisings focused on lack of freedom, undue obligation, and lack of land.
- -Emancipation was designed to retain the tight grip of the tsarist state.
- -Some aristocrats were convinced that a free labor system would produce higher profits.
- -Leaders were stung by Western criticism of the injustice of Russian society.
Local political councils introduced as part of Alexander II's program of reform were called...
One of the important results of the establishment of railway systems in Russia was the opening of
served as minister of finance from 1892 to 1903.
What was present during the Russian program of industrialization?
rich, natural resources.
The political goal of the Russian anarchists was...
the abolition of all formal government in Russia.
Which group used terrorism as their chief political method?
believed that Russia could have a proletarian revolution without going through a distinct middle-class stage.
State something concerning the nineteenth-century Tokugawa Shogunate.
The Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with regional daimyos and the samurai.
Which group in Tokugawa Japan advocated concentration of specifically Japanese culture?
national studies group
What were the policies of the new Meiji government?
- -abolition of feudalism
- -establishing a system of nationally appointed prefects
- -expanding state power
- -launching samurai learning expeditions to the West.
What were the effects of industrialization in Japan?
- -universal education
- -Western fashions
- -a shift in Japanese foreign policy
- -massive population growth
Alexander I sponsored the __________ idea at the Congress of Vienna, which grouped the conservative monarchies of Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order.
Western values also inspired a minor but disturbing political revolt, the __________ rising, in 1825.
Nicholas I provoked conflict with the Ottoman Empire in 1853, the __________ War.
In some ways the Russian __________ of the serfs in 1861 was more generous than the liberation of the slaves in America.
Tsar Alexander II created local political councils, the __________, that had a voice in regional policies.
The establishment of the __________ railroad, which connected European Russia with the Pacific, was the crowning achievement of the drive to improve communications.
Under Count __________, minister of finance from 1892 to 1903, the government enacted high tariffs to protect new Russian industry.
The __________horizontala Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a classhorizontalformed a self-conscious group bent on radical change.
Many Russian radicals were __________, who sought the abolition of all formal government.
__________ was assassinated by a terrorist bomb in 1881.
One of the most active __________ leaders was Vladimir Ilyrich Ulyanov, known as Lenin.
Lenin's approach animated the group of Russian Marxists known as __________, or majority party.
War broke out between Russia and __________ in 1904, leading to a disastrous Russian defeat.
Unexpected defeat in war unleashed massive protests on the Russian home front in the __________.
Revolution of 1905
Russian liberals were wooed through the creation of national parliament, the __________.
Following the Revolution of 1905, minister __________ introduced an important series of reforms.
A Czech scientist, __________, advanced the understanding of genetics.
A Russian physiologist, __________, experimenting on conditioned reflexes, explained unconscious responses in human beings.
Japanese commoner schools or __________ taught reading, writing, and the rudiments of Confucianism to ordinary people.
After 1720 a group of Japanese scholars interested in __________ studies created new interest in Western scientific advance.
The American commodore __________ arrived at Edo Bay in 1853 and insisted that Americans be allowed to trade.
Centralized government returned to Japan in 1868 with the __________ Restoration.
The Japanese constitution of 1889 assured major powers for the emperor along with a parliament or __________.
By the 1890s huge new industrial combines called __________ were being formed in Japan.
Japan's quick victory over __________ in the quarrel for influence over Korea in 1894-1895 marked the first step in colonial expansion.
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