Infective Endocarditis bugs

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  1. Staphylococcus aureus
    • gram + cocci, clusters, catalase + , coagulase +, b-hemolysis, mannitol +
    • normal flora of nasal mucosa and skin
    • Most common cause of acute infective endocarditis (acute onset of high-grade fever and chills, rapid onset of cogestive heart failure) of native, prosthetic valve and tricuspid valve (IV drug user)
    • Protein A, Fibrinogen- binding protein, coagulases: convert fibrinogen to fibrin clot, cytotoxic toxins: pore-forming toxins
    • culture on mannitol salt agar give yellow colonies
  2. Viridans Streptococci (S. mutans, S. sanguis)
    • gram + cocci, chains, catalase -
    • normal flora of oral and nasopharyngeal cavities
    • access bloodstream during dental/oral surgery
    • most common cause of subacute IE (low fever, anorexia, weakness, lasting for more than several weeks) of damaged valves
    • biofilm, FimA surface adhesin
    • culture: no hemolysis
  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis
    • gram + cocci, clusters, catalase +, coagulase -, mannitol -
    • prosthetic valve, IV drug users
    • biofilm
    • Culture: no hemolysis
  4. Enterococcus faecalis
    • gram + cocci, lancefield group D
    • normal intestinal flora
    • Subacute IE in patients w/ damaged valve
    • growth in 6.5% NaCl, alpha and gamma hemolysis
  5. Streptococcus bovis
    • gram + cocci, lancefield group D
    • normal intestinal flora
    • can cause bacteremia and subacute endocarditis in colon cancer patients
  6. HACEK group
    Haemophilus aphrophilus
    Cardiobacterium hominis
    Eikenella corrodens
    Kingella kingae
    • normal oropharyngeal flora
    • Subacute IE, complications may include massive arterial emboli and congestive heart failure
    • fastidious organisms requires 5-10% CO2 + 3 wks incubation
Card Set:
Infective Endocarditis bugs
2012-04-13 05:17:20

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