Phonology Midterm 2

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kiryuu
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147376
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Phonology Midterm 2
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2012-04-13 04:19:39
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Phonology Midterm
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Phonology Midterm 2
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  1. Feature matrix
    A two-dimensional display of the phonetic features characterizing each of a sequence of phonological segments. Features are presented on the left and segments on top.
  2. Binary feature
    • +/-
    • (Segment is either voiced or unvoiced, no grey areas)
  3. Parenthesis notation
    • ( )
    • encloses optional material; where an item is enclosed in parentheses at any point in the rule, the rule works equally well with or without the parenthesised material
  4. Brace notation
    • { } braces
    • or curly brackets enclose options; that is, the rule will work with any one of the things listed in brace
  5. Alpha notation
    • (a.k.a. Greek letter variable), agreement in features;
    • used as the value for a feature when the precise value is not important, but matching of values is;
    • α must have the same value everywhere it occurs on any given application of the rule
  6. Suprafeature (F and P)
    • αP copies place of articulation
    • αF copies all features
  7. Vacuous rule application
    write rule with as few features as possible
  8. Iterative rule application
    • Rules apply iteratively/reapplies across string;
    • it feeds itself
  9. Sonority hierarchy
    • a ranking of speech sounds (or phones) by amplitude;
    • nucleus has maximal sonority and that sonority decreases as you move away from the nucleus
    • 1. Low V
    • 2. Mid V
    • 3. Hi V
    • 4. Glides
    • 5. Liquids
    • 6. Nasals
    • 7. Fricatives
    • 8. Stops
  10. Syllable onset
    a consonant that begins a syllable
  11. Syllable nucleus
    most sonorant part, in some languages, only vowels can be nucleus
  12. Syllable coda
    consonant after a vowel
  13. Phontactic constraint
    restrictions on the type of sound sequences which are allowed in a language
  14. Mora
    • a unit of prosodic weight, related to length
    • a long vowel has two moras and a short vowel has one.
    • The mora may be a property of both a particular segment and an entire syllable.
  15. Open syllable
    ends in a vowel; coda-less
  16. Closed syllable
    ends in a consonant
  17. Light syllable
    one mora; open (coda-less) syllable with a short vowel
  18. Heavy syllable
    two mora; syllable with a long vowel or a diphthong, or a coda consonant
  19. Maximal onset principle
    put as much into onset as possible
  20. Prosodic hierarchy
    • each lower level is embedded in the higher
    • 1. prosodic phrase
    • 2. prosodic word
    • 3. foot
    • 4. syllable
    • 5. mora
  21. Foot
    rhythmic unit in phonology

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