ANAT.FINAL

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Author:
xiongav
ID:
147427
Filename:
ANAT.FINAL
Updated:
2012-05-09 00:37:01
Tags:
Digestion eso stomach intestine
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Description:
Esophogus/Stomach/S.Intestine
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  1. Esophogus.

    Function.

    Muscularis externa (3; voluntary/involuntary?)

    Epithelial lining?
    Function: carries food materal (bols) from Oral Cavity to Stomach.

    • Externa:
    • Upper 1/3 is skeletal (voluntary)
    • Inferior 1/3 is smooth (involuntary)
    • Middle 1/3 is MIXED.

    Lining: stratified squamous epithelia
  2. Esophogus.

    What produces mucus for lubrication?

    What is the external layer?

    What does it pass through in the thoracic vertebra?
    Glands in the submucosa.

    External layer: adventitia.

    Passes through diaphragm (esophogus hitus; T10)
  3. Stomach.

    The stomach is a site for?

    What are the 4 regions of the stomach?

    What is significant about the pyloris?
    For chemical/mechanical digestion.

    • Regions:
    • 1) Cardiac
    • 2) Fundus
    • 3) Body
    • 4) Pyloris: to prevent food from leaving stomach.
  4. Stomach; histology & function.

    What are Gastric Pits lined by?

    Does the stomach consist of Goblet Cells?

    Why two types of mucus? (hint: pH level in stomach)
    G. Pits lined by: SIMPLE COLOUMNAR EPI.

    NO goblet cells.

    Two types of mucus for high acidity level in stomach.
  5. What cells are found in ALL regions of the stomach? (2)

    What protects the stomach from digesting itself?

    Gastric pit & gland cells: (simple columnar epi.)
    Surface mucous cell secretes?
    Mucous neck cell secrete?
    Parietal cells secrete?
    Cheif cells secrete? (hint: cheif of soda is PEPSI (NOGEN)
    Enteroendocrine cells secrete?
    • 1) Gastric cells
    • 2) Mucus neck cells.

    • MUCUS.
    • Surface mucous: mucin
    • Mucous nect cell: acidic mucin
    • Parietal: HCL & intrinsic factor
    • Chief: pepsinogen (breaks down protein)
    • Entero: gastrin
  6. When is gastrin produced? (stimulus for gastrin)

    What do gastrin cells stimulate?
    When food enters the stomach.

    • Stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCL.
    • -also secretes intrinsic factor
  7. Gastric Glands are contained in what two parts of stomach? (2)
    1) Fundus

    2) Body
  8. Muscularis externa.

    What are the 3 layers?

    Why do we have 3 layers?

    What sphinctor is formed from a thickened middle circular layer?
    • 1) innermost oblique
    • 2) middle circular
    • 3) outer longitudinal

    3 layers to help churn food.

    Pyloric sphinctor.
  9. Small Intestine.

    A site for?

    3 parts of small intestine.
    -Which is 12 digits wide?
    -Which is also a sphinctor?
    Site for absorption of nutrients (carbs, proteins, & fats)

    • 1) duodenum (intestine 12 digits wide)
    • 2) jejunum
    • 3) ilieum (ilieo cecal valve, sphinctor)
  10. Small intestine.

    increase surface area (circular folds + villi) is called?

    Thin or thick layer?
    Plicae circularis.

    Thickened area of submucosa.
  11. Small intestine; histology & function.

    What is the function of the lacteal vessel (capillaries)?

    Mucus secreting cells are called?

    What do Paneth cells, secrete?
    Carries fats and transfer to the lacteal ducts.

    Globlet cells: mucus secreting cells.

    Paneth: lysozymes (breaks down bacteria).
  12. Small intestine.

    What are Peyer's Patches?
    • Peyer's: aggregated lymphoid nodules.
    • -macroscopic white patches ONLY in small intestine.
  13. Small intestine.

    What are the 2 layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa?
    • 1) inner circular
    • 2) outer longitudinal.
  14. Surface of lumen is modified to increase surface area for absorption.

    What is the Plica Circularis?
    Villi?
    Microvilli?
    Crypts?
    Paneth cells?
    Plica: thickened areas of submucosa (folds + circular)

    Villi: macroscopic finger-like projections of the mucosa.

    Microvilli: microscopic folds on apical surface of cells.

    Crypts: between small intestine & villi.

    • Paneth: base of crypts.
    • -Lysosome secretion
  15. Duodenum.

    What are Brunner's glands?

    Where are submucosal mucus cells found?

    What cell stimulate the secretion of cholecystokinin and secretin (1st hormone discovered) when food enters the duodenum?
    Bunner's: mucus secreting cells in submucosa.

    Found in the Esophogus and Duodenum.

    Enteroendocrine cells.
  16. The 4 basic mucosal types are listed below. Match them to their associated organs and mucosal types.

    Protective (organs mnemonic: OPEA; 4 organs)
    Secretory (1 organ)
    Absorption (1 organ)
    Absorption/Protective (1 organ)
    • Protective: Stratified Squamous
    • -Oral cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Anal canal

    • Secretory: Stomach ONLY.
    • -Simple Columnar cells (mucous-secreting & mucous neck)

    • Absorption: SI only
    • -Simple Columnar covering "finger-like" villi, separated by Crypts.

    • Absorptive/Protective: LI
    • -Simple Columnar cells for water absorption
    • -Stratified Squamous (protective) in anal canal

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