Hepatitis NP2

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  1. How is hepatitis A transmitted? Where is it found in body?
    • Fecal-oral route.
    • Parenteral (rarely)

    • Found in feces 2 or more weeks before the onset of symptoms and up to 1 week after the onsect of jaundice
    • Present in blood briefly
  2. How is Hepatitis B transmitted?
    • Perinatally by motheres infected
    • Percutaneously (IV drug use)
    • Horizontally by mucosal exposure to infect blood, blood products, or other body fluids

    *Transmission occurs when infected blood or other body fluids enter the body of a person who is not immune to the virus
  3. Sexually transmitted disease
    Can live on a dry surface for 7 days
    Kissing/Sharing food items may spread the virus via saliva
    More infectious than HIV
    Hepatitis B
  4. RNA virus
    Hepatitits A & C
  5. DNA virus
    Hepatitis B
  6. First sign of Hepatitis B
    Massively fatigue
  7. Possible symptoms of Hep B
    • pain in the URQ
    • N&V
    • loss of appetite
    • Jaundice
    • fatigue
    • itching-bile salt deposits
  8. How is Hep C transmitted
  9. Risk factors of Hep C
    • IV drug users
    • - most common mode of transmission in the US and canada
    • Blood transfusion
    • -Transmission <1 per 1 million blood transfusion
    • High-risk sexual behavior
    • Hemodialysis
    • Occupational exposure
    • Perinatal transmission
  10. Incubation of hep C
    21-140 days (average 7 weeks)
  11. 90% of these patients develop chronic hepatitis
    #1 cause of cirrhosisi and liver cancer
    Hep C
  12. Pathophysiology of hepatitis
    • Liver is enlarged and congested
    • -Distortion of lobular pattern
    • Results in increased portal cirucluation pressure
    • Circulation then decreases to liver
    • Edema of biliary channels
    • Results in obstructive Jaundice

    *Liver cell damage results in hepatic cell necrosis*

    • Acute Infection
    • Proliferation and enlargement of Kupffer cells
    • Inflammation of the periportal areas may interupt bile flow
    • Cholestasis may occur
  13. Hep lab tests
    • Serum liver ezymes (Liver function test-act, alt, ggt, etc)
    • serum bilirubin
    • serologic markers
    • hepatitis antibody serum
  14. Hep diagnostic test
    • Abdominal films (size of liver)
    • Liver biopsy (causative factor, cancer, cirrosis, hep C)
  15. Signs and symptoms of hepatitis
    • A short, mild, flu-like illness
    • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
    • Loss of appetitie
    • weight loss
    • jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes)
    • Dark yellow urine and pale feces
    • itchy skin
    • abdominal pain during acute phase
    • arthralgias- pain in joints
    • skin rashes
  16. Covalescent phase for hep pt]
    Major complaints?
    • Begins as jaundice is disappearing
    • Last weeks to months
    • Major complaints:
    • Malaise
    • Easy fatigability
  17. Medical management for hepatitis
    • No specific treatment or therapy for acute virual hepatitis
    • resting the body and recieving adequate nutrients
    • *support therapy: antimetics and small, frequent meals
    • Vitamins (B complex and Vitamin K)
    • Low-fat
    • Adequate calories
    • Treating symptoms!
  18. Drug therapy for chronic Hepatitis
    • a-interferon (PEG-Intron)
    • Lamivudine (epivir)
  19. a-interferon (peg-intron)
    • Drug for chronic Hep B&C
    • Multiple effects on viral replication cycle
    • Must be administered subQ
    • Side effects:
    • Flu-like symptoms, depression, hair thinning, diarrhea, insomnia
  20. Drug therapy for chronic hep C
    Ribavirin and Peg-Intron
  21. Nursing interventions for hepatitis
    • Contact isolation (if active)
    • Education to prevent transmission
    • Drug therapy
    • small frequent meals
    • avoid alcohol
    • no sharing razors, iv needles
    • watch for encephalopathy
    • REST
    • maintain skin integrity
    • Must enforce annual evaluation labs
    • watch for bleeding tendencies
    • never donate blood
    • isolation on dialysis patients who have HepC
    • avoid very hot or cold foods during intial episodes
  22. Complications of hep
    • Chronic hep
    • fluminating hepatitis (liver eats itself, blob)
    • cirrhosis of the liver
    • liver cancer
    • liver failure
Card Set:
Hepatitis NP2
2012-04-13 23:42:50

Hepatitis NP2
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