chapter 11

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reyesroni
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14745
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chapter 11
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2010-04-16 04:27:26
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anthropology chp11 keywords
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political organization
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  1. social differentiation
    the relative access individuals and groups have to basic meterial resources, wealth, power and prestige
  2. egalitarian society
    a society in which no individual or group has more privilidged access to resources, power, or prestige than any other.
  3. rank society
    a society characterized by institutionalized differences in prestige but no important restrictions on access to basic resources.
  4. stratified society
    a society characterized by formal, permanent social and economic inequality in which some people are denied access to basic resources.
  5. ascribed status
    a social position that a person is born into.
  6. achieved status
    a social position that a person chooses or achieves on his or her own.
  7. power
    the ability to control resources in ones own interest
  8. authority
    the ability to cause others to act based on characteristics such as honor, status, knowledge, ability, respect, or the holding of formal public office.
  9. political ideology
    the shared beliefs and values that legitimize the distribution and use of power in a particular society.
  10. political process
    the ways in which individuals and groups use power to achieve public goals.
  11. factions
    informal system of alliance within well-defined political units such as lineages and villages.
  12. leadership
    the ability to direct an enterprise or action.
  13. rebellion
    the attemp of a group within society to force a redistribution of resources and power.
  14. revolution
    an attempt to overthrow an existing form of political organization.
  15. law
    • a means of social control and dispute management throught the
    • systematic application of force by those in society with the authority
    • to do so.
  16. political organization
    the patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior.
  17. social complexity
    the number of groups and their interrelationship in a society.
  18. band
    a small group of people (20-50) related by blood or marriage, who live together and are loosely associated with territory in which they forage.
  19. age grades
    specialized hierarchical associations based on age, which stratify a society by seniority.
  20. war (warfare)
    a formally organized and culturally recognized pattern of collective violence directed toward other societies, or between segments within a large society.
  21. tribe
    a culturally distinct population whose members consider themselves descended from the same ancestor.
  22. age set
    a group of people of similar age and sex who move through some or all of lifes stages together.
  23. secret societies
    west african societies whose membership is secret or whose rituals are known only to society members. their most significant function is the initiation of boys and girls into adulthood.
  24. segmentary lineage system
    a form of socialpolitial organization in which multiple descent groups (usually patrilineages) form at different levels and function in different contexts.
  25. complementay opposition
    a political structure in which higher-order units form alliances that emerge only when lower-order units come into conflict.
  26. bigman
    a self-made leader who gains power through personal achievements rather than through political office.
  27. mediation
    a form of managing disputes that uses the offices of a third party to achieve voluntary agreement between disputing parties.
  28. compensation
    a payment demanded by an aggrieved party to compensate for damage.
  29. chiefdom
    a society with social ranking in which political integration is achieved through an office of centralized leadership called the chief.
  30. acephalous
    lacking a government head or chief.
  31. tributary mode of exchange
    the primary producers, wether pastoral or agricultural, are allowed access to the means of production, and tribute is exacted from them by political or military means.
  32. state
    a hierarchical, centralized form of political organization in which a central government has a legal monopoly over the use of force.
  33. citizenship
    membership in a state.
  34. government
    an interrelated set of status roles that become separated from other aspects pf social organization, such as kinship.

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