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What are the structures and functions of the immune system
organs include tonsils, lymph nodes (receive fluids and solutes that are taken up by lymphatic capillaries), spleen (blood-clearing process, major site of humoral immune response to blood borne antigens) gut associated lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, thymus gland (secretes hormones that contrbute to maintenance and function of peripheral t-cell populations). These organs are both peripheral sties for production of the molecules and cells that serve as effector units of the immune response and central organs that prepare antigens for recognition
What is inluded in surface defenses
- intact skin
- muscous membranes
- surface clearing mechanisms
- bile from gallbladder
- HCL in stomach
- normal flora
What is inflammation
- A combined fluid and cellular response to tissue injury, septic or sterile, that acts to clear debris, remove or neutralize septic agents, and set the stage for respir of damage.
- It is also how our body resists infection. systemic response of the host include elevation of serum cortisol levels, induction of fever, leukocytosis, the de novo appearance of c-reactive protein, increased porduction of complement components and increased production of siderophores
what is acute inflammation
Resolves quickly, happens suddenly, neutrophils involved
what is chronic inflammation
prolonged, slow healing, macrophages involved
What is the acute phase response
systemic response that accompanies a strong local inflammatory response. Initiated by the action of cytokines produced by stimulated macrophages
What is active immunity
immunized following direct exposure to an antigen and generation of our own effector units
what is passive immunity
indirect receipt of effector units produced by an animal, another human, or by gene-engineering procedures
What are the categories of acquired immunity
what is humoral immunity
immunoglobulins in peripheral blood. the effector units are immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA). Responses to all infections
what is mucosal immunity
Immunoglobulins present in mucous secretions, secretory IgA present in the mucous secretions of the respiratory tract, GI tract, and urogenital tract
what is cell-mediated immunity
cytotoxic t-cells that circulate in peripheral blood. The effector units are cytotoxic t cells that circualte in peripheral blood and are present in lymphoid tissues (ex. cacners and transplant rejection)
what is atopic hypersenstivity
acquire immunity, mast cells found in connective tissue and in sufaces of the respiratory and GI tract (type 1 hypersensitvity) effector unit is IgE which is attached to surface receptors on mast cells found in connective tissues and subsurface tissues of the respiratory and GI tracts
What do the lymph nodes do
small organs throughout the body, interconnected by lymph vessels. Receive fluid, particulates, and solutes that are taken up by lymphatic capillary from distal tissue sites. Resident macrophages w/in the node monitor the lymph fluid passing through the node for the presence of foreign partiulate and remove them by phagocytic action.
what do lymph nodules do
much less organized than lymph nodes. The are in respiratory, GI and urogenital tracts. Antigenic materials are translocated across the epithelium through special cell. Immunocompetent cells in lymph nodules produce either IgE or IgA. provide for development of either an allergic action response of the immediate hypersensitivity or for IgA a mucosal immune response
what does the spleen do
largest lymphoid organ in the body. Blood-clearing process via fixed macrophages in sinusoids as well as a major site of humoral immune responses to bloodborne antigens
What is the immune response and the immune cascade
- Phase I: Afferent Phase - Arrival of antigen. Antigen is introduced to body
- Phase II: Central Phase - Body recognizes antigen
- Phase III: Efferent Phase - Body tries to get rid of antigen
What is the secondary immune response
- occurs when an individual who has been previously immunized with an antigen is rechallanged later with the same substance.
- happens when person is previously immunized.
- Antigen is rechallanged and pulls body's secondary immune system into play
what are the b cells and the antibody response
- b cells recognize antigen in one of 2 forms
- 1. when free antigen is encountered the response is limited only IgM is produced and there are no memory B clonotypes developed
- 2. when proteins or protein conjugates are used as antigens the APCs must first process the molecules to produce peptide framents which are combined with MHC molecules and then presented to T helper cells.
- Finally B cell is transformed into distinct cell type: plasma cell. Highly differentiated and specilaized cell that is capable of producing large quantities of secreted immunoglobulin
What do immunoglobulins (antibodies) do
bind to antigens to facilitate phagocytosis and initate inflammation by activating the complement cascade
What deoes IgG do
When inflammation occurs in extravascular tissues IgG is carred out of vascular compartment to the septic site
what does IgA do
predominant in saliva, tears, breast milk. The secretory form prevents adherence of MO to mucosal epithelium and supplements resistance mechanisms against local infections in GI and respiratory.
What does IgM do
Largest produced in response to challenge by bacteria in the normal gut flora
what does IgE do
deal with when peopel have allergic reactions, asthma, released histamine, facilitate phagocytosis (leukocytes are eosinophils and neutrophils)
Which immune responses are antibodies not involved in
- t lymphocytes and cell-mediated immunity
- CMI protects body against infection by viruses, slow growing bacteria and fungal infections. Reacts to abnormal clones of self
What do t-helper cells do
assist B cells to mature and produce antibody, also modulate the maturation and function of a cytotoxic t cell.
what do suppressor t cells do
suppress b and t cells responses to antigens
what is the cytotoxic t lymphocytes funtion
to kill viral-infected host cells, malignant cells, and cells in allograft transplants.
What meds compromise immunity to infection
- bone marrow depression is a side effect