RA - Eye notes

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RA - Eye notes
2012-04-14 15:30:44
RA Eye notes

RA - Eye notes
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  1. Supercilium

    hairy ridge above the eye

    located on the superciliary arch

    hair growth is laterally upward and outward

    there is greater density of hair at the inner/medial portion

    both borders are irregular

    the general shape is straight, arched or angled

    replace superciliary hair using hair from the back of the neck using a 2-pronged needle into wax
  2. Supra-orbital area/margin
    Supra-orbital margin

    the region below the eyebrow and above the orbit

    located laterally
  3. Superior palpebral sulcus
    the upper border of the upper eyelid

    it separates the upper eyelid form the supra-orbital area

  4. Superior palpebra
    upper eyelid

    responsible for the closing action of the eye

    in terms of surface area it is 3 times larger than the lower lid
  5. Inferior palpebra
    lower eyelid

    does not move

    not involved in the closing action of the eye in the living
  6. Inferior palpebral sulcus
    the lower border of the lower eyelid

    separates the lower eyelid from the cheek

  7. Naso-orbital fossa
    tear duct

    a depression above the medial canthus

    a concave recess
  8. Medial canthus
    inner corner of the eye

    where the two eyelids come together

    aka inner canthus

    aka internal canthus
  9. Lateral canthus
    outer corner of the eye

    where two eyelids come together

    aka outer canthus

    aka external canthus
  10. Optic facial sulci
    crow's feet

    sulci that radiate from the lateral canthus
  11. Oblique palpebral sulcus
    where the bags of the eye form

    an oblique groove

    originate in the medial canthus

    extend downward and outward onto the cheek
  12. Cilia

    hairy like fingers

    the hairy fringe of an eyelid

    they are irregular in length and spacing

    no hair at the extreme ends of the line of eye closure

    thicker in diameter than the hair of the head

    replace from the back of the neck

    upper eyelid of these are more numerous, longer and curve upward

    lower eyelid of these curve downward

    NEVER interlace cilia between the two lids
  13. Linear sulci
    eyelid wrinkles

    these are many fine furrows

    they run horizontally

    can be any size or shape

    can be broken or continuous

    found on both eyelids
  14. Common transverse sulcus
    a larger pronounced sulcus on the upper eyelid only

    caused by the opening and closing of the upper lid

  15. Caruncula
    a small reddish mass or elevation found on the conjuctiva near the inner canthus at the medial angle of the eye

    it is not visible when the eye is properly closed

    may become swollen and enlarged due to an inflammed lacrimal (tear) duct
  16. Line of closure
    created by the upper eyelid

    found to be the lower portion of the eye socket 2/3rds the way down

    the lateral end is said to be inferior and posterior to the medial end

    the upper lid is 3 times larger in surface area than the lower lid
  17. Profile topography of the eye
    there exists a convex recession from the eyebrow to the line of eye closure
  18. Size and shape of the eyelids

    - projection is due to the prominence of the __________ at the center of the upper lid

    - as far as surface area, the upper lid is _ times larger than the lower lid

    - upper eyelid is _________ (wider/longer) than the lower lid

    - eyelid __________ (come together) - they never ___________!!!

    - there may be slight overlapping at the _________ (medial/lateral) end which tends to lower __________ (inferiorly/superiorly) at the end of the line of closure

    - the eyelids resemble an ______________ nut when they are together



    abut, overlap

    lateral, inferiorly

  19. Eye restoration and treatment - SUNKEN

    try ________ (tissue/organ) filling while embalming by restricting drainage

    ____________ (tissue/organ) build after embalming...____________ (before/after) consulting with the family

    hypodermically build behind the eyeball starting with the ____________ (medial/lateral)

    use __________ (cotton/water) under the eyecaps

    tissue, after


  20. Eye restoration and treatment - EMACIATION AT THE BORDER OF THE SOCKET

    - use a dab of _______ (wax/clay)

    - add cotton support in the _________ (medial/lateral) canthus area

    - employ hypodermic __________ (tissue/organ) building

    - use liquid cement (e.g. aron alpha) if lids are separated


  21. Eye restoration and treatment - SWOLLEN EYELIDS

    - apply ____________ (external/internal) pressure during and after embalming

    - electric spatula

    - dehydrating chemicals

    - ____________ (cavity/organ) packs

    - aspiration (hypodermically)

    - incision with ___________(external/internal) pressure

    - excise and __________ (rebuild/destroy)

    with some of these treatments the lids will appear wrinkled, after reduction of tissue occur apply warm wax to wrinkles



  22. Eye restoration and treatment - DISCOLORED EYELIDS

    - after embalming, ________ (bleach/clean) out with liquid phenol and use alcohol

    - use a commercial bleaching agent (e.g. "dryene")

    - apply a _________ (cavity/organ) pack with cavity fluid

    - cosmetize using ___________ (opaque/clear) cosmetics

    Note: buy phenol in crystal form and dilute with water to 30%-50% solution, can be injected, too, with virtually no resulting hydration
    - bleach

    - cavity

    - opaque
  23. Eye restoration and treatment - WRINKLED EYELIDS

    - electric spatula (iron them out)

    - apply warm ___ (wax/clay)

    - massage with ______ (cream/oil)

    - excise and _______ (rebuild/destroy)
    - wax

    - cream

    - rebuild
  24. Eye restoration and treatment - PROTRUDING EYES

    - apply ________ (external/internal) pressure during and after embalming

    - hypodermically aspirate the tissue around eye

    - aspirate the vitreous humor our of the eyeball itself

    - excise fat from _______ (behind/in front of) the eye

    - pucture the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone. this allows the eyeball to setle back into its socket

    - remove the eyeball

  25. Eye restoration and treatment - LACERATED EYELIDS

    - use liquid cement (i.e. aron alpha)

    - restore with ___ (wax/clay) and apply cosmetics over it

    - excise the eyelids and restore with cotton and collodion with wax and cosmetics over that
  26. Eye restoration and treatment - SEPARATED EYELIDS

    - _________ (strech/cut) the lids

    - use a liquid cement (e.g. aron alpha)

    - ________ (suture/cut open) the lids (using hair or fine floss)

    - cut the restraining muscle of the upper eyelid (levator palpebrae superiorus)

    - excise and ________ (rebuild/destroy)
    - strech

    - suture

    - rebuild
  27. Eye restoration and treatment - TREATMENT OF BAGGY EYES (orbital pouch below lower eyelid)

    - apply _________ (external/internal) pressure before and after embalming

    - considering using one or more of the other techniques for reducing swollen tissue
  28. Eye restoration and treatment - DEHYDRATED INNER CANTHUS

    - similar to "emaciation at border of socket" but now the medial canthus will appear to be separated

    - stretch the eyelids if possible

    - use liquid cement

    - use restorative wax

    - use cotton support
  29. NOTE: be cautious handling the tissue around the eye especially in the elderly "senile tissue" is very fragile and common around the eye
    NOTE: be cautious handling the tissue around the eye especially in the elderly "senile tissue" is very fragile and common around the eye