Card Set Information

2012-04-21 19:23:40

Show Answers:

  1. What are Y shaped proteins that have receptors to detect antigens?
  2. What part of an antibody forms the alerts another cell of antigen/antibody complex?
    antibody tail
  3. What lines of defense do antibodies belong in?
    only 3rd line / specific
  4. What are 5 categories of immunoglobins?
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgA
    • IgD
  5. What is an immunoglobin?
  6. What shape is the IgG antibody?
    • monomer
    • one Y shape
  7. What is the predominant class of antibodies?
  8. What antibody can cross the placenta?
  9. What antibodies leave the blood vessel during inflammation?
  10. How many binding sites are on an IgG antibody?
    2 identical binding sites
  11. What kind of immunity do IgG antibodies give a fetus?
    natural passive
  12. What are the 3 functions of IgG?
    • neutralize by interrupting attachment
    • adherence of phagocyte
    • activation of complement
  13. By what process do IgG antibodies and complement proteins encourage adherence of phagocytes to invaders?
  14. What 3 functions of activated complement proteins?
    • chemotaxis
    • opsonization
    • cytolysis
  15. What kind of complex activated complement proteins?
    antigen-antibody complex
  16. What shape are IgM antibodies?
    • pentomer
    • 5 Y shaped attached at the tails
  17. Where are IgM antibodies found?
    blood stream
  18. Why do IgM antibodies stay in the blood stream during inflammation?
    • bigger antibodies
    • wont fit through dialated fenestrations
  19. What is the first type of antibody made when a new invader is found in the blood stream?
  20. What is 1 function of IgM antibodies?
    activate complement proteins
  21. What antibody is dimer shaped?
  22. How many antigen binding sites do IgA antibodies have?
  23. What antibodies clump antigens on the body surfaces?
  24. What do IgA antibodies prevent?
    inaverds on body surfaces from entering breaks
  25. Which antibody has secretory component?
  26. Where are IgA antibodies found?
    from vessels to body secretions
  27. Which 3 antibodies are monomers?
    • IgG
    • IgE
    • IgD
  28. What antibodies are only found on the surface of B cells?
  29. What are 3 functions of IgE antibodies?
    • fight parastic worms
    • involved in fatal allergies
  30. What type of cell do IgE antibodies bind to?
    • basophils
    • mast cells
  31. What is the function of IgD?
    allow B cells to recognize antigens
  32. What is the significance of rising antibody titers?
    • antibody titres show which antibodies are present, and how many
    • can represent what kind of disease a person is fighting
  33. What cells have surface antibodies that act as antigen specific receptors?
    b cells
  34. What kind of antigen specific receptors do t cells have on their cell surface?
    non antibody
  35. What are 2 different t cells?
    helper and cytotoxic
  36. What do CD8 cells release?
    toxic chemicals
  37. What do CD4 cells release?
    interleukins (chemicals)
  38. What do Th cells do?
    • release interleukins
    • stimulate B cells and macrophages
  39. How are macrophages stimulated?
    by Th/CD4 cells
  40. What 2 things do stimulated marcophages increase?
    • increase in size
    • increase in # of lysosomes
  41. What are 2 types of specific immunity in the 3rd line of defense?
    cell mediated and humoral immunity
  42. Which type of specific defense involves B cells, Antigen presenting cells, Th/CD4 cells?
    humoral immunity
  43. What are 3 antigen presenting cells found in specific immunity?
    • macrophages
    • phagocytes
    • dendritic cells
  44. Where are B cells and T cells found in the body?
    blood and lymphatic stream
  45. What class of antibodies are found on B cells in humoral immunity?
  46. How does the B cell alert a Th cell of an invader in humoral immunity?
    • B cell attaches to antigen by antigen binding sites on anitbody
    • phagocytosis of invader
    • exocytosis leaves antigens on surface of B cell
    • T cell responds to antigens on the surface
  47. What 3 things does a Th cell do when it responds in humoral immunity?
    • replicates/reproduces
    • matures into memory T cells and active T cells
    • stimulates B cells only
  48. What 3 things does a Th cell do when it responds in cell mediated immunity?
    • replicates/reproduces
    • matures into memory Th and active Th
    • stimulates Antigen presenting cells (macrophages) only
  49. When does a macrophage become an antigen presenting cell?
    after exocytosis of invader
  50. How does CD4 cell help stimulate B cells and macrophages?
    release of interleukin
  51. What do interleukins do to a B cell?
    • stimulates > replicates/ reproduces
    • matures into memory B cells and plasma cells
  52. What kind of antibodies do plasma cells have?
    the same antibodies as the B cell they came from
  53. During the first exposure, how long does it take to mature plasma cells?
    several days
  54. What 2 things are made during primary immune response and how long does it take?
    • release of IgM antibodies
    • release of IgG antibodies
    • 7-10 days to process antibodies
  55. What kind of antibodies are made in the secondary immune response and how long does it take to make them?
    • IgG
    • 2-3 days
  56. What kind of response is the third immune response?
    • faster
    • more prolonged
    • "booster" response
  57. How long can memory B cells and T cells stay in the body?
    around 10 years
  58. Which specific immunity cell has antibodies on the surface?
    B cells only
  59. What 3 reasons could a person get sick with the same disease if they have been exposed before and are supposedly immune?
    • exposed to different strains
    • overwhelming amount of organisms
    • \drop in immune response
  60. What process do interleukins released by CD4 cells cause?
  61. What virus kills Th cells?
  62. What 3 things do the chemicals that Tc cells release do?
    • kill intracellular parasite infected cells
    • kill cancer cells
    • kill vascularized transplants
  63. What do CD8 cells need to help them in cell mediated immunity?
    nothing, lone rangers
  64. What do CD8 cells respond to and how do they respond?
    • abnormal cell structure of self cells
    • replication/reproduction
    • maturation into memory Tc cells and active Tc cells
  65. What does the medicine that avoids rejection of transplants do?
    inhibits Tc cells
  66. If CD8 cells kill cancer cells, how can someone still have cancer?
    cells reproduce faster than Tc cells can
  67. Why does chemotherapy bring a person's immunity down?
    • kills ALL rapidly reproducing cells
    • immunity cells are rapidly reproducing as well as cancer cells
    • immunity cells die
  68. What are 9 causes for a person to be immunocomprimised?
    • HIV infection
    • multiple infections at once
    • old age
    • young age
    • cancer
    • chronic diseases
    • stress
    • poor nutrition
    • pregnancy
  69. How does pregnancy cause a mother to become immunocomprimised?
    immune response is lowered to avoid attacking baby's foreign genese from dad
  70. What are 2 different roles of t helper cells in humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity?
    • humoral : stimulates B cells
    • cell mediated : stimulates macrophages
  71. What are injections that help immunity build?
  72. What are 4 types of vaccines?
    • killed/ inactivated
    • live, atentuated
    • toxoid
    • acellular/subunit
  73. What is the most effective type of vaccine?
    live, atenuated
  74. Who can not receive live, atenuated vaccines?
  75. What is the newest type of vaccine?
  76. What kind of immunity are vaccines?
    artificial active immunity
  77. What form of the pathogen is injected in a vaccine?
  78. What are chemicals or structures that help pathogens cause disease?
    virulence factors
  79. What type of vaccine has dead organisms that can't reproduce?
  80. What vaccine type is contraindicated for the immunosupressed?
    live, atenuated
  81. What vaccine type is the least safe?
    live, atenuated
  82. What vaccines have weakened exotoxins?
  83. What vaccines have only peices of the microorganisms?
  84. Which vaccines dont require boosters?
    live, atenuated
  85. What do signs and symptoms after eceiving a vaccine indicate?
    your immune system is working to make antibodies
  86. What are 3 adverse reaction to vaccines?
    • allergies
    • fevers
    • seizures
  87. What is the msot common allergy reacted to vaccine?
    flu vaccine, grown in eggs
  88. What is the vaccine which was known for giving fevers and seizures?
    pertusses (killed) vaccine