Card Set Information
What are Y shaped proteins that have receptors to detect antigens?
What part of an antibody forms the alerts another cell of antigen/antibody complex?
What lines of defense do antibodies belong in?
only 3rd line / specific
What are 5 categories of immunoglobins?
What is an immunoglobin?
What shape is the IgG antibody?
one Y shape
What is the predominant class of antibodies?
What antibody can cross the placenta?
What antibodies leave the blood vessel during inflammation?
How many binding sites are on an IgG antibody?
2 identical binding sites
What kind of immunity do IgG antibodies give a fetus?
What are the 3 functions of IgG?
neutralize by interrupting attachment
adherence of phagocyte
activation of complement
By what process do IgG antibodies and complement proteins encourage adherence of phagocytes to invaders?
What 3 functions of activated complement proteins?
What kind of complex activated complement proteins?
What shape are IgM antibodies?
5 Y shaped attached at the tails
Where are IgM antibodies found?
Why do IgM antibodies stay in the blood stream during inflammation?
wont fit through dialated fenestrations
What is the first type of antibody made when a new invader is found in the blood stream?
What is 1 function of IgM antibodies?
activate complement proteins
What antibody is dimer shaped?
How many antigen binding sites do IgA antibodies have?
What antibodies clump antigens on the body surfaces?
What do IgA antibodies prevent?
inaverds on body surfaces from entering breaks
Which antibody has secretory component?
Where are IgA antibodies found?
from vessels to body secretions
Which 3 antibodies are monomers?
What antibodies are only found on the surface of B cells?
What are 3 functions of IgE antibodies?
fight parastic worms
involved in fatal allergies
What type of cell do IgE antibodies bind to?
What is the function of IgD?
allow B cells to recognize antigens
What is the significance of rising antibody titers?
antibody titres show which antibodies are present, and how many
can represent what kind of disease a person is fighting
What cells have surface antibodies that act as antigen specific receptors?
What kind of antigen specific receptors do t cells have on their cell surface?
What are 2 different t cells?
helper and cytotoxic
What do CD8 cells release?
What do CD4 cells release?
What do Th cells do?
stimulate B cells and macrophages
How are macrophages stimulated?
by Th/CD4 cells
What 2 things do stimulated marcophages increase?
increase in size
increase in # of lysosomes
What are 2 types of specific immunity in the 3rd line of defense?
cell mediated and humoral immunity
Which type of specific defense involves B cells, Antigen presenting cells, Th/CD4 cells?
What are 3 antigen presenting cells found in specific immunity?
Where are B cells and T cells found in the body?
blood and lymphatic stream
What class of antibodies are found on B cells in humoral immunity?
How does the B cell alert a Th cell of an invader in humoral immunity?
B cell attaches to antigen by antigen binding sites on anitbody
phagocytosis of invader
exocytosis leaves antigens on surface of B cell
T cell responds to antigens on the surface
What 3 things does a Th cell do when it responds in humoral immunity?
matures into memory T cells and active T cells
stimulates B cells only
What 3 things does a Th cell do when it responds in cell mediated immunity?
matures into memory Th and active Th
stimulates Antigen presenting cells (macrophages) only
When does a macrophage become an antigen presenting cell?
after exocytosis of invader
How does CD4 cell help stimulate B cells and macrophages?
release of interleukin
What do interleukins do to a B cell?
stimulates > replicates/ reproduces
matures into memory B cells and plasma cells
What kind of antibodies do plasma cells have?
the same antibodies as the B cell they came from
During the first exposure, how long does it take to mature plasma cells?
What 2 things are made during primary immune response and how long does it take?
release of IgM antibodies
release of IgG antibodies
7-10 days to process antibodies
What kind of antibodies are made in the secondary immune response and how long does it take to make them?
What kind of response is the third immune response?
How long can memory B cells and T cells stay in the body?
around 10 years
Which specific immunity cell has antibodies on the surface?
B cells only
What 3 reasons could a person get sick with the same disease if they have been exposed before and are supposedly immune?
exposed to different strains
overwhelming amount of organisms
\drop in immune response
What process do interleukins released by CD4 cells cause?
What virus kills Th cells?
What 3 things do the chemicals that Tc cells release do?
kill intracellular parasite infected cells
kill cancer cells
kill vascularized transplants
What do CD8 cells need to help them in cell mediated immunity?
nothing, lone rangers
What do CD8 cells respond to and how do they respond?
abnormal cell structure of self cells
maturation into memory Tc cells and active Tc cells
What does the medicine that avoids rejection of transplants do?
inhibits Tc cells
If CD8 cells kill cancer cells, how can someone still have cancer?
cells reproduce faster than Tc cells can
Why does chemotherapy bring a person's immunity down?
kills ALL rapidly reproducing cells
immunity cells are rapidly reproducing as well as cancer cells
immunity cells die
What are 9 causes for a person to be immunocomprimised?
multiple infections at once
How does pregnancy cause a mother to become immunocomprimised?
immune response is lowered to avoid attacking baby's foreign genese from dad
What are 2 different roles of t helper cells in humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity?
: stimulates B cells
: stimulates macrophages
What are injections that help immunity build?
What are 4 types of vaccines?
What is the most effective type of vaccine?
Who can not receive live, atenuated vaccines?
What is the newest type of vaccine?
What kind of immunity are vaccines?
artificial active immunity
What form of the pathogen is injected in a vaccine?
What are chemicals or structures that help pathogens cause disease?
What type of vaccine has dead organisms that can't reproduce?
What vaccine type is contraindicated for the immunosupressed?
What vaccine type is the least safe?
What vaccines have weakened exotoxins?
What vaccines have only peices of the microorganisms?
Which vaccines dont require boosters?
What do signs and symptoms after eceiving a vaccine indicate?
your immune system is working to make antibodies
What are 3 adverse reaction to vaccines?
What is the msot common allergy reacted to vaccine?
flu vaccine, grown in eggs
What is the vaccine which was known for giving fevers and seizures?
pertusses (killed) vaccine