Biology 201 (3)

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atasker
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Biology 201 (3)
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2012-04-15 20:54:59
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biology 201 study questions
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  1. How do sponges feed?
    They are suspension feeders; water is dran in through the spongocoel and flows out of the osculum. Food is engulfed by choanocytes through phagocytosis.
  2. What type of digestive system do Porifera have?
    None
  3. What type of digestive system do Cnideria have?
    incomplete
  4. What type of digestive system do Platyhelminthes have?
    incomplete
  5. What type of digestive system do Molluscs have?
    complete, differentiated
  6. What type of digestive system do Annelida have?
    complete, differentiated
  7. What type of digestive system do Nematoda have?
    Complete, undifferentiated
  8. What type of digestive system do Arthropoda have?
    Complete, differentiated
  9. What type of digestive system do Echinodermata have?
    complete, differentiated
  10. What type of digestive system do Chordata have?
    complete, differentiated
  11. Which Phylae do no have complete differentiated digestive systems?
    • Nematoda
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Cnidaria
    • Mollusca
    • Porifera
  12. What phylae do not have respiratory systems?
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Nematoda
  13. What type of respiratory system do Molluscs have?
    Gills, lung
  14. What type of respiratory system do Annelida have?
    Gills or none.
  15. What type of respiratory system do arthropoda have?
    Gills, lung, trachea
  16. What type of respiratory system do Echinodermata have?
    tube feet, gills
  17. What type of respiratory system do Chordata have?
    gills or lungs
  18. Which phylae do not have a circulatory system?
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Nematoda
  19. Do Mollusca have an open or closed circulatory system?
    Some open, some closed.
  20. Do Arthropoda have an open or closed circulatory system?
    open
  21. Do Annelida have an open or closed circulatory system?
    closed.
  22. Do Chordates have an open or closed circulatory system?
    closed
  23. Do Echinodermata have an open or closed circulatory system?
    open (and water vascular system)
  24. How many chambers does an amphibian heart have?
    three
  25. How many chambers does a reptillian heart have?
    three
  26. How many chambers does a mammalian heart have?
    four
  27. Which is above the other, atrium or ventricle?
    atrium
  28. How does an open circulatory system work?
    Circulatory fluid bathes the organs directly. Contraction of one or more hearts pumps the hemolymph through circulatory vessels into sinuses; spaces surrounding the organs. Body movement helps with circulation
  29. Which phylae do not have excretory systems?
    • Porifera
    • Cnideria
  30. What type of excretory system do Platyhelminthes have?
    diffusion, protonephridia
  31. What type of excretory system do Annelida have?
    Metanephridia
  32. What type of excretory system do Molluscs have?
    metanephridia
  33. What type of excretory system do nematodes have?
    diffusion, glands
  34. What type of excretory system do Echinodermata have?
    Water vascular system
  35. What type of excretory system do Arthropoda have?
    malphigian tubules, metanephridia
  36. What type of excretory system do Chordates have?
    nephridia
  37. Which phylae can reproduce asexually?
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Echinodermata
  38. which phylae reproduce internally?
    • Porifera
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Annelida
    • Nematoda
    • Arthropoda
    • Chordata
  39. Which phylae reproduce externally?
    • Cnidaria
    • Mollusca
    • Echinodermata
  40. Which phylae are hermaphroditic?
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Annelida
  41. Which phylae have seperate sexes?
    • Mollusca
    • Arthropoda
    • Echinodermata
    • Nematoda
    • Chordates
  42. What does the pancreas do?
    • Releases insulin which lowers blood sugar levels
    • releases Glucagon which raises blood sugar
  43. How is the release of insulin regulated?
    Antagonistic hormones
  44. What does the Thyroid gland do?
    Releases thyroxin which increases metabolic rate.
  45. How is the Thyroid regulated?
    Negative feedback
  46. How does negative feedback work?
    An accumulation of an end product of a process slows the trigger.
  47. What is the pituitary gland?
    The "master" endocrine gland; releases many hormones.
  48. What to main hormones are released by the pituitary gland?
    • growth hormone
    • thyroid stimulating hormone
  49. What is a neuron?
    A nerve cell that transmits signals.
  50. What is resting potential?
    • Electrochemical potential across neuron plasma membrane:
    • negative electric charge
    • high concentration of K ions
    • Low concentration of Na ions
  51. What is action potential?
    Sudden release of resting potential
  52. What are the steps in the generation of an action potential?
    • Na gates open, Na enters (making neuron +). Upon reaching threshhold, K gates open
    • As action potential is reached, Na gates close and lock.
    • K diffuses out, K gates close
    • Na gates unlock (not open)
  53. What does the nervous system do?
    • Coordinates activites of the body
    • Senses the environment
    • Responds to the environment
  54. What is an axon?
    A long extension, or process, that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body toward target cells.
  55. How are action potentials conducted?
    The depolarization of the action potential spreads to neighbouring regions of the membrane and reinitiates the action potential.
  56. What is the myelin sheath?
    Electrical insulation that allows for high speed conduction in small axons.
  57. What do Schwann cells do?
    Insulate axons between nodes of Ranvier. Causes action potentials to be limited to nodes of Ranvier increasing conduction speed.
  58. What type of nervous system do Porifera have?
    None
  59. What type of nervous system do Cnidaria have?
    Nerve net
  60. What type of nervous system do Platyhelminthes have?
    Net brain, cords
  61. What type of nervous system do Mollusca have?
    brain, cords, ganglia
  62. What type of nervous system do Annelida have?
    brain, cords, ganglia
  63. What type of nervous system do Nematoda have?
    brain, cords
  64. What type of nervous system do Arthropoda have?
    brain, cords, ganglia
  65. What type of nervous system do Echinodermata have?
    brain, cords
  66. What type of nervous system do Chordates have?
    brain, cords, ganglia
  67. What part of the human eye forms the cornea?
    Sclera
  68. What part of the human eye forms the iris?
    Choroid
  69. What cavity is formed in front of the lens?
    Aqueous humor
  70. What cavity is formed behind the lens?
    Vitreous humor
  71. Rods and Cones feed information to what?
    bipolar cells
  72. bipolar cells feed information to what?
    ganglion cells
  73. What cells integrate information across the retina?
    Horizontal and amacrine cells
  74. What do rods do?
    Detect light, not colour
  75. What do cones do?
    detect colour, very little light.
  76. What part of the eye enables us to see at night>
    rods
  77. How many rods approx are in the human retina?
    125 million
  78. How many cones approx are in the human retina?
    6 million
  79. Contracted ciliary muscles do what? why?
    Make the lens of the eye thicker, for focusing on near objects.
  80. How many types of cones are there?
    3
  81. What is ecology?
    The study of how organisms interact with their environment
  82. what is a fixed action pattern?
    A kind of behaviour that is essentially unchangeable
  83. What is proximate causation?
    Study of why and how animal behaviour occurs
  84. What is ultimate causation?
    The evolutionary significance of animal behaviour
  85. What is a limiting nutrient?
    A nutrient that must be added to increase primary production in an ecosystem - usually nitrogen or phosphorus
  86. What are primary producers?
    Plants and algae that generate new biomass
  87. What is the sole source of carbon in the ecological cycle?
    Primary producers (from carbon dioxide.)
  88. How is nitrogen introduced to the nitrogen cycle?
    Through nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert N2 to NH3
  89. How many ATP molecules are required for nitrogen-fixation?
    8 per NH3 (one N2 produced two NH3)
  90. How is phosphorus introduced to the phosphorus cycle?
    Through soil only; there are no significant phosphorus-containing gases.
  91. What is the basic structure of a virus?
    Protein shell encapsulating genetic material
  92. What is a prion?
    A misfolded form of a protein normally present in brain cells.
  93. How do prions propagate?
    Any normally folded similar protein a prion comes into contact with will assume the same misfolded shape of the prion
  94. What is cancer?
    Uncontrolled cell division in a multicellular organism
  95. How does cancer normally start?
    With the mutation of a gene that normally controls cell division.
  96. From one pyruvate, how much energy is produced?
    • 4 NADH
    • 1FADH2
    • 1 ATP
  97. How many steps are involded in glycolysis?
    10, each with its own enzyme.
  98. How many steps are involved in the Citric Acid Cycle?
    11, each with its own enzyme.
  99. What is produced from NADH in oxidative phosphorylation?
    3 ATP
  100. What is produced from FADH2 in oxidative phosphorylation?
    2 ATP
  101. What is fermentation?
    a metabolic pathway that changes pyruvate. Allows glycolysis to continue in the absence of oxygen.
  102. A low wavelength wave has _____ frequency and _____ energy.
    High, high. Photons have enough energy to destroy molecules
  103. A high wavelength wave has _____ frequence and _____ energy
    low, low. Photons barely affect molecules.
  104. What is required to complete the Calvin Cycle?
    • 12 NADPH
    • 18 ATP
  105. What happens in Photosystem II?
    H2O is broken down into O + 2H++2e-. The 2H+ are released into the thylakoid lumen. O combines with another O to form O2
  106. What happens in the Cytochrome complex?
    The "fall" of electrons to a lower energy level provides energy for the synthesis of ATP
  107. What happens in Photosystem I?
    NADPH is produced
  108. Is ATP produced in photosystem I or II?
    Photosystem II
  109. What does an operator do?
    Controls access of RNA polymerase to the genes.
  110. What constitues an operon?
    Operator, Promoter and the genes they control.
  111. What does the repressor do to an operon?
    It binds to the Operator, blocking the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter. Turns the operon off.
  112. How does an inducer work in operons?
    In certain operons, the repressor is active by itself. An inducer is required to derepress the operon - the inducer inactivates the repressor.
  113. When is DNA replicated?
    During the S period.
  114. What type of cell is this?
    -No centrioles
    -No lysosomes
    -Generally no flagella
    -Cell Wall
    Plant Cell
  115. What can diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer?
    • Non-polar molecules (oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipids)
    • Small polar molecules (Water, ethanol)
  116. What is fermentation?
    • A metabolic pathway that changes pyruvate.
    • Energy is obtained from conversion of NADH to NAD
    • Allows glycolysis to continue in the absence of oxygen
  117. What is glycolysis?
    A metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. Occurs in the cytosol. Energy released is used to convert ADP to ATP and NAD to NADH
  118. What is the output of the citric acid cycle in terms of energy?
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
    • 1 ATP
  119. Where does the Citric Acid Cycle take place?
    In the Mitochondria
  120. How many ATP are produced from one molecule of glucose?
    36
  121. What allows transcription to occur?
    RNA polymerase
  122. What does transfer RNA do?
    Carries amino acids to ribosomes
  123. In Prophase I what is most evident?
    Chromosomes condense and are found in homologous pairs.
  124. Define enzyme.
    A protein that facilitates a specific chemical reaction.
  125. What is DNA made of?
    A sugar-phosphate backbone with nucleic acid bases.
  126. Define metabolism
    All chemical reactions taking place in an organism
  127. What is pleiotropy?
    When a genotype at a single locus influences more than one trait.
  128. What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    • Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus.
    • Prokaryotic cells have no cytoskeleton
    • Cell division for prokaryotic cells is by binary fission.
  129. What are the three steps of transcription?
    • Initiation
    • Elongation
    • Termination
  130. What is evident in metaphase I?
    Homologous pairs line up
  131. When does crossing over occur?
    Prophase I
  132. What is ATP?
    Adenosine Triphosphate. Used to power the cell.
  133. How does RNA differ from DNA?
    • typically single-stranded
    • different sugar
    • Composed of guanine, adenine, cytosine and URACIL (not thymine)
  134. What is transcription?
    copying a sequence from DNA onto RNA
  135. What happens in Anaphase I?
    Whole chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends.
  136. What is a seed?
    A plant embryo with food in a protective case
  137. What is oxidative phosphorylation?
    • Generates an H+ gradient.
    • Converts ADP to ATP
  138. What does mRNA do?
    Carries protein blueprint from DNA to ribosomes.
  139. What type of cell is this?
    -No cell wall
    -No plasmodesmata
    -No Chloroplasts
    -No central vacuole
    Animal Cell
  140. What are the four classes of macromolecules?
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
  141. What type of cell is this?
    -No centrioles
    -No chloroplasts
    -Cell wall
    -Pores between cells
    Fungal
  142. What type of cell is this?
    -No true nucleues
    -Generally no organelles
    -Cell wall
    Bacterial
  143. Meiosis II results in what?
    • 4 haploid cells(spermatogenesis)
    • 1 haploid ova (oogenesis
  144. What is a zygote?
    A fertilized egg (diploid)
  145. What is linkage?
    Relates to crossing over; the closer loci are to each other, the more likely their traits are to be inherited together
  146. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root xylem in centre
    -vascular cambium
    -flowerparts in fours/five or multiples
    Dicot
  147. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root vascular cylinder relatively small
    -leaf with branched veins
    -stem vascular bundles in ring
    Dicot
  148. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root xylem in ring
    -stem vascular bundles scattered
    -flower parts in threes or multiples
    Monocot
  149. Monocot or Dicot?
    -root vascular cylinder relatively large
    -no vascular cambium
    -leaf with parallel veins
    Monocot
  150. What is mycelium?
    The body of the fungus, made up of hyphae
  151. What is a basidiocarp?
    The fruiting body of a club fungus
  152. What is a zygosporangium?
    A multinucleate structure in zygomycete fungi where meiosis occurs
  153. What is homeostasis?
    Steady-state condition of the body.
  154. What are the four basic animal tissue types?
    • Epithelial (surface/covering)
    • Connective tissue (cells in a matrix)
    • Muscle tissue (contracting)
    • Nerve tissue (conducting)
  155. What are the three shapes of epithelial tissue?
    • Squamous
    • Columnar
    • Cuboidal
  156. Give three examples of connective tissue
    • blood
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • adipose tissue
    • fibrous connective tissue (tendons, ligaments)
    • loose connective tissue
  157. What does adipose tissue do?
    Pads and insulates body, stores fuel (as fat)
  158. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  159. Which muscle tissue is responsible for voluntary movements?
    Skeletal
  160. What is the integumentary system?
    The outer covering of a mammal's body including hair, skin and nails, claws or hooves
  161. What are the three domains?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  162. What are the taxa between Domain and Class?
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
  163. What are the taxa between Class and Species?
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
  164. What is directional selection?
    When conditions favour individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range.
  165. What is disruptive selection?
    • When conditions favour individuals with phenotypes at both ends of the phenotypic range.
    • ex) birds with medium sized beaks are inefficient at cracking soft and hard seeds.
  166. What is stabilizing selection?
    • When both extremes of a phenotypic range and infavourable.
    • ex) human babies who are light or heavy.
  167. What are autotrophs?
    • Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide
    • ex) plants
  168. What are heterotrophs?
    • Organisms that obtain carbon from organic molecules
    • ex)humans
  169. What are phototrophs?
    Organisms that obtain energy from light
  170. What are chemotrophs?
    Organisms that obtain energy from chemicals
  171. What are photoautotrophs?
    Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide and energy from light.
  172. What are Chemoautotrophs?
    Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide and energy from chemicals.
  173. What are photoheterotrophs?
    Organisms that obtain carbon from organic molecules and energy from light
  174. What are chemoheterotrophs?
    Organisms that obtain carbon from organic molecules and energy from chemicals
  175. A sexual organism is one where what fuses to form what?
    gametes fuse to form a zygote
  176. In an asexual organism there is no fusion of _______?
    Gametes
  177. What is an organ?
    A group of tissues integrated to perform one or more functions in an organism
  178. What is a tissue?
    A group of similar cells that perform a particular task in an organism
  179. What is cytosis?
    The engulfing or expulsion of particles through the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
  180. What is dermal tissue? What is it's function?
    • The outer surface tissue of plants.
    • Protects from injury
    • Exchanges materials with the environment
  181. A is hypotonic to B. Which has the higher concentration of solute?
    B.
  182. What are thrombocytes? What do they do?
    Platelets. They carry enzymes that cause clotting.
  183. What are leukocytes? What do they do?
    White blood cells. They attack invaders in the body.
  184. What are erythrocytes? What do they do?
    Red blood cells. They transport oxygen.
  185. What are fungal cell walls made of?
    Chitin
  186. What are carrier proteins?
    Proteins that allow larger molecules to pass across the plasma membrane. They are very specific and work through diffusion.
  187. What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
    • Bacillus
    • Coccus
    • Spirillum
  188. What are the three main kingdoms?
    • Animalia
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
  189. What is crenulation?
    When a blood cell in a hypertonic environment loses too much water and collapses
  190. What can generally pass through the phopholipid bilayer?
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Water
  191. What is meristem tissue? What does it do?
    Embryonic tissue. Necessary for growth and repair.
  192. What is vascular tissue? What does it do?
    Composed of Xylem and Phloem. Forms tubules for the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
  193. What is osmosis?
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  194. What is plasmolysis?
    When a plant cell in a hypertonic environment loses too much water and collapses.
  195. What is active transport?
    The transport across the cell membrane of a substance against the concentration gradient. Used to maintain a different concentration from the surrounding environment. Requires energy (ATP)
  196. What is cyclosis?
    The cycling of cytoplams in a cell.
  197. What is haemolysis?
    When a cell in a hypotonic environment gains too much water and bursts.
  198. A is hypertonic to B. Which has a higher concentration of solute?
    A.
  199. What is ground tissue?
    • Neither vascular or dermal tissue, necessary for photosynthesis, food storage and mechanical support.
    • Pith, Cortex and Mesophyll are all ground tissue.
  200. What are channel proteins?
    Proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer that allow specific small molecules to pass through diffusion.
  201. Define metabolic pathway:
    A particular sequence of connected reactions
  202. How does translation work?
    Ribosomes form around tRNA "translating" the nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence know as a polypeptide. Occurs in the cytoplasm.
  203. What is nondisjunction?
    When cell division during meiosis results in uneven numbers of chromosomes are pulled to each end of the dividing cell.

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