They are suspension feeders; water is dran in through the spongocoel and flows out of the osculum. Food is engulfed by choanocytes through phagocytosis.
What type of digestive system do Porifera have?
What type of digestive system do Cnideria have?
What type of digestive system do Platyhelminthes have?
What type of digestive system do Molluscs have?
What type of digestive system do Annelida have?
What type of digestive system do Nematoda have?
What type of digestive system do Arthropoda have?
What type of digestive system do Echinodermata have?
What type of digestive system do Chordata have?
Which Phylae do no have complete differentiated digestive systems?
What phylae do not have respiratory systems?
What type of respiratory system do Molluscs have?
What type of respiratory system do Annelida have?
Gills or none.
What type of respiratory system do arthropoda have?
Gills, lung, trachea
What type of respiratory system do Echinodermata have?
tube feet, gills
What type of respiratory system do Chordata have?
gills or lungs
Which phylae do not have a circulatory system?
Do Mollusca have an open or closed circulatory system?
Some open, some closed.
Do Arthropoda have an open or closed circulatory system?
Do Annelida have an open or closed circulatory system?
Do Chordates have an open or closed circulatory system?
Do Echinodermata have an open or closed circulatory system?
open (and water vascular system)
How many chambers does an amphibian heart have?
How many chambers does a reptillian heart have?
How many chambers does a mammalian heart have?
Which is above the other, atrium or ventricle?
How does an open circulatory system work?
Circulatory fluid bathes the organs directly. Contraction of one or more hearts pumps the hemolymph through circulatory vessels into sinuses; spaces surrounding the organs. Body movement helps with circulation
Which phylae do not have excretory systems?
What type of excretory system do Platyhelminthes have?
What type of excretory system do Annelida have?
What type of excretory system do Molluscs have?
What type of excretory system do nematodes have?
What type of excretory system do Echinodermata have?
Water vascular system
What type of excretory system do Arthropoda have?
malphigian tubules, metanephridia
What type of excretory system do Chordates have?
Which phylae can reproduce asexually?
which phylae reproduce internally?
Which phylae reproduce externally?
Which phylae are hermaphroditic?
Which phylae have seperate sexes?
What does the pancreas do?
Releases insulin which lowers blood sugar levels
releases Glucagon which raises blood sugar
How is the release of insulin regulated?
What does the Thyroid gland do?
Releases thyroxin which increases metabolic rate.
How is the Thyroid regulated?
How does negative feedback work?
An accumulation of an end product of a process slows the trigger.
What is the pituitary gland?
The "master" endocrine gland; releases many hormones.
What to main hormones are released by the pituitary gland?
thyroid stimulating hormone
What is a neuron?
A nerve cell that transmits signals.
What is resting potential?
Electrochemical potential across neuron plasma membrane:
negative electric charge
high concentration of K ions
Low concentration of Na ions
What is action potential?
Sudden release of resting potential
What are the steps in the generation of an action potential?
Na gates open, Na enters (making neuron +). Upon reaching threshhold, K gates open
As action potential is reached, Na gates close and lock.
K diffuses out, K gates close
Na gates unlock (not open)
What does the nervous system do?
Coordinates activites of the body
Senses the environment
Responds to the environment
What is an axon?
A long extension, or process, that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body toward target cells.
How are action potentials conducted?
The depolarization of the action potential spreads to neighbouring regions of the membrane and reinitiates the action potential.
What is the myelin sheath?
Electrical insulation that allows for high speed conduction in small axons.
What do Schwann cells do?
Insulate axons between nodes of Ranvier. Causes action potentials to be limited to nodes of Ranvier increasing conduction speed.
What type of nervous system do Porifera have?
What type of nervous system do Cnidaria have?
What type of nervous system do Platyhelminthes have?
Net brain, cords
What type of nervous system do Mollusca have?
brain, cords, ganglia
What type of nervous system do Annelida have?
brain, cords, ganglia
What type of nervous system do Nematoda have?
What type of nervous system do Arthropoda have?
brain, cords, ganglia
What type of nervous system do Echinodermata have?
What type of nervous system do Chordates have?
brain, cords, ganglia
What part of the human eye forms the cornea?
What part of the human eye forms the iris?
What cavity is formed in front of the lens?
What cavity is formed behind the lens?
Rods and Cones feed information to what?
bipolar cells feed information to what?
What cells integrate information across the retina?
Horizontal and amacrine cells
What do rods do?
Detect light, not colour
What do cones do?
detect colour, very little light.
What part of the eye enables us to see at night>
How many rods approx are in the human retina?
How many cones approx are in the human retina?
Contracted ciliary muscles do what? why?
Make the lens of the eye thicker, for focusing on near objects.
How many types of cones are there?
What is ecology?
The study of how organisms interact with their environment
what is a fixed action pattern?
A kind of behaviour that is essentially unchangeable
What is proximate causation?
Study of why and how animal behaviour occurs
What is ultimate causation?
The evolutionary significance of animal behaviour
What is a limiting nutrient?
A nutrient that must be added to increase primary production in an ecosystem - usually nitrogen or phosphorus
What are primary producers?
Plants and algae that generate new biomass
What is the sole source of carbon in the ecological cycle?
Primary producers (from carbon dioxide.)
How is nitrogen introduced to the nitrogen cycle?
Through nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert N2 to NH3
How many ATP molecules are required for nitrogen-fixation?
8 per NH3 (one N2 produced two NH3)
How is phosphorus introduced to the phosphorus cycle?
Through soil only; there are no significant phosphorus-containing gases.
What is the basic structure of a virus?
Protein shell encapsulating genetic material
What is a prion?
A misfolded form of a protein normally present in brain cells.
How do prions propagate?
Any normally folded similar protein a prion comes into contact with will assume the same misfolded shape of the prion
What is cancer?
Uncontrolled cell division in a multicellular organism
How does cancer normally start?
With the mutation of a gene that normally controls cell division.
From one pyruvate, how much energy is produced?
How many steps are involded in glycolysis?
10, each with its own enzyme.
How many steps are involved in the Citric Acid Cycle?
11, each with its own enzyme.
What is produced from NADH in oxidative phosphorylation?
What is produced from FADH2 in oxidative phosphorylation?
What is fermentation?
a metabolic pathway that changes pyruvate. Allows glycolysis to continue in the absence of oxygen.
A low wavelength wave has _____ frequency and _____ energy.
High, high. Photons have enough energy to destroy molecules
A high wavelength wave has _____ frequence and _____ energy
low, low. Photons barely affect molecules.
What is required to complete the Calvin Cycle?
What happens in Photosystem II?
H2O is broken down into O + 2H++2e-. The 2H+ are released into the thylakoid lumen. O combines with another O to form O2
What happens in the Cytochrome complex?
The "fall" of electrons to a lower energy level provides energy for the synthesis of ATP
What happens in Photosystem I?
NADPH is produced
Is ATP produced in photosystem I or II?
What does an operator do?
Controls access of RNA polymerase to the genes.
What constitues an operon?
Operator, Promoter and the genes they control.
What does the repressor do to an operon?
It binds to the Operator, blocking the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter. Turns the operon off.
How does an inducer work in operons?
In certain operons, the repressor is active by itself. An inducer is required to derepress the operon - the inducer inactivates the repressor.
When is DNA replicated?
During the S period.
What type of cell is this?
-Generally no flagella
What can diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer?