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What are trichostrongyles?
hair like worms
What are the different trichostrongyles?
Do trichostrongyles have an intermediate host?
What kind of life cycle do trichostrongyles have?
direct life cycle
Do trichostrongyles migrate?
How do trichostrongyles infect?
ingestion of L3
What is the PPP of trichostrongyles?
very short 2 - 3 weeks
Can hypobiosis occur with trichostrongyles?
What is periparturient rise?
around time of birth
When does hypobiosis usually occur?
- periparturient rise
- infect pastures around parturition so that the trichstrongyles can infect the baby animals
What is the most effective treatment for trichostrongyles?
Who is the host for Ostertagia? Where is the infection site?
- cattle, sheep, goat
- adults: lumen, gastric mucosal surface
- larvae: gastric glands
Who is the host for Trichostrongylus axei? Where is the infection site?
- ruminants, horses, pigs
- abomasum, stomach
Who is the host for Cooperia? Where is the infection site?
- sheep, goats
- small intestines
What are Trichostrongylus axei?
What is the pathology for Trichostrongylus axei?
What does Trichostrongylus axei cause if there is a large number of them?
- debilitating watery diarrhea - often dark green
- another name: black scours
What is Haemonchus contortus?
Who is the host for Haemonchus contortus? Where is the infection site?
What do Haemonchus contortus do? What does this cause?
- sucks blood
- blood loss anemia
What are the clinical signs of Haemonchus contortus?
- sudden death in lambs
- acute: anemia, edema (bottle jaw), weakness, melena
- chronic: weight loss, lethargy, anemia
How do we diagnose Haemonchus contortus?
- clinical signs
- strongyle-type egg in feces
What is the primary cattle parasite worldwide?
What is the pathogen for adult Ostertagia?
What is the pathogen for Ostertagia larvae?
- watery diarrhea
- neutral pH in abomasum
If environmental conditions are poor what do Ostertagia do?
undergo hypobiosis in the host
When conditions improve, what do Ostertagia do?
turn into adults, seed pasture with their eggs
Do trichostrongyles infect transmammary or transplacental?
Ostertagiasis infect in two different ways. When does type I infect?
when pasture conditions are good
How does Type I Ostertagia infect?
- infect pastured young cattle during early grazing season
- the worms mature without passing through hypobiosis
When do Ostertagia Type II infect?
- larvae undergo hypobiosis and wait it out
- late winter in the north
- fall in the south
What are the clinical signs of Ostertagiasis?
- anorexia or reduced appetite
- weight loss
- submandibular edema (hypoproteinemia, bottle jaw)
How do we diagnose Ostertagiasis?
typical strongyle-type egg
When should we deworm cattle?
- cows following calving
- cows when calves wean
- young calves, midsummer at weaning
- yearlings in spring or fall
- dairy cows during lactation
What should we do after we deworm cattle?
Who is the host for Nematodirus? What is their infection site?
- sheep, goats, cattle, other ruminants
- small intestines
What is the pathogen for Nematodirus when there are large numbers of them?
severe debilitating diarrhea
What is the pathogen of Cooperia?
- poor weight gain
Cooperia are usually secondary to which types of infections?
How do we diagnose Cooperia?
typical strongyle-type egg
What are Dictyocaulus viviparous?
thin thread-like worms that parasitize ruminant lungs
What is the life cycle of Dictyocaulus?
- oviparous females (in lungs) lay eggs that are already embryonated
- hatch immediately
- migrate up trachea
- coughed up and swallowed
- pass out in feces
- larvae crawl into fungus
What are oviparous females?
females that lay eggs
How does fungus help Dictyocaulus?
when the fungus explode the larvae exlode out with the fungus and all over the pasture
If Dictyocaulus are ingested, how do they migrate?
- goes thru intestinal wall to mesenteric lymph nodes
- lymphatics (lymph gets dumped into blood stream)
- goes to blood
- goes to lungs
What is the pathogen of Dictyocaulus?
lungs: pulmonary edema, bronchitis, pneumonia
How do we diagnose Dictyocaulus?
- clinical signs: coughing cattle
- Baermann apparatus: L1's
What is Dictyocaulus arnfeldi?
lungworm of horses and donkeys
What is the life cycle of Dictyocaulus arnfeldi?
- life cycle similar except embryonated egg is passed in feces
What age do Dictyocaulus arnfeldi infect donkeys? Horses?
- Donkeys: at any age
- Horses: foals and yearlings