PSYC 355 Chap 14 Part 1

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PSYC 355 Chap 14 Part 1
2012-04-13 17:30:37

Chapter 14: Bio Rhythms, Sleep and Dreaming Part 1
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  1. What is a circadian rhythm?
    a pattern of behavioural, biochemical, or physiological fluctuation that has a 24 hour period
  2. What does it mean to be Diurnal?
    active during the day (e.g. humans, and other primates).
  3. What does it mean to be nocturnal?
    active at night (e.g. rodents, hamsters)
  4. What is a free running animal?
    a rhythm of behaviour shown by an animal deprived of external cues about time of day.
  5. What is a period?
    the interval of time between two similar points of successive cycles such as sunset to sunset.
  6. What is a phase shift?
    a shift in the activity of a biological rhythm, typically provided by a synchronizing environmental stimulus
  7. what is entrainment?
    the process of synchronizing a biological rhythm to an environmental stimulus.
  8. what is a zeitgeber?
    time giver. A stimulus (light-dark cycle) that entrains circadian rhythms.
  9. What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)?
    a small region of the hypothalamus above the optic chiasm that is the location of a circadian oscillator
  10. What is a pineal gland?
    a secretory gland in the brain midline; the source of melatonin release
  11. what is the retinohypothalamic pathway?
    the projection of retinal ganglion cells to the SCN
  12. what is melanopsin?
    a photopigment found within particular retinal ganglion cells that project to the SCN
  13. What is a dimer?
    a complex of two proteins that have bound together
  14. what is an ultradian?
    a rhythmic biological event whose period is shorter than that of a circadian rhythm, usually from several minutes to several hours long.
  15. What is a circannual?
    occuring on a roughly annual basis
  16. what is an infradian?
    referring to a rhythmic biological event whose period is longer than that of a circadian rhythm-longer than a day
  17. what is electroencephalography?
    the recording and study of gross electrical activity of the brain recorded from large electrodes placed on the scalp.
  18. what is electro-oculography (EOG)?
    the electrical recording of eye movements
  19. What is electromyography (EMG)?
    the electrical recording of muscles
  20. What is slow wave sleep? (SWS)
    sleep divided into stages 1-4 that is defined by the presence of slow wave EEG activity.
  21. What is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep?
    a stage of sleep categorized by small amplitude, fast EEG waves, no postural tension, and rapid eye movements.
  22. What is a desynchronized EEG? (beta activity)
    a pattern of EEG activity comprising a mix of many different high frequencies with low amplitude.
  23. What is an alpha rhythm?
    a brain potential of 8 to 12 Hz that occurs during relaxed wakefulness
  24. What is a vertex spike?
    a sharp wave EEG pattern that is seen during stage 1 SWS
  25. What is stage 1 sleep?
    the initial stage of SWS. Consists of small EEG waves of irreg frequency, slow heart rate and reduced muscle tension
  26. What is stage 2 sleep?
    a stage of SWS. Bursts of regular 14-18 Hz EEG waves called sleep spindles.
  27. What is a sleep spindle?
    a characteristic of a wave in the EEG of a person in stage 2 of SWS
  28. What is the K complex?
    a sharp negative EEG potential that is seen in stage 2 sleep
  29. What is stage 3 sleep?
    a stage of SWS defined by spindles mixed with larger amp waves
  30. whats a delta wave?
    the slowest type of EEG wave, characteristic of stages 3 and 4 SWS
  31. What is stage 4 sleep?
    a stage of SWS defined by the presence of delta waves at least half the time.